Burgundy (uniting the Yonne and Saflne) -.
The constitution and liberties of the city, which survived its incorporation in Burgundy, were lost for a time as a result of the unsuccessful rising against Duke Philip the Good (1450).
Burgundy pitch is also prepared from it by a similar process as that from Picea excelsa.
It is ornamented with the arms of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, and must have been cast between 1419 and 1467.
After the death of Mary of Burgundy, who had resided in the city, they forced her husband, the archduke Maximilian, to conclude the treaty of Arras (1482).
Of Bourg), a building in the Romanesque style of Burgundy, and that of Nantua (12th century), are of architectural interest.
The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.
In the 15th-century town hall (Rathaus) is preserved the golden drinking cup of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, which was taken at the battle of Nancy in 1477.
He tried to mediate between his brother Philip the Bold of Burgundy and his nephew Louis, duke of Orleans, and later between John "sans Peur" of Burgundy and Orleans.
In order to take possession of his new see, he had to brave the wrath of the duke of Burgundy, override the resistance of the clergy and bourgeoisie, and even withstand an armed attack on the part of several lords; but his protector, the duke of Orleans, had his investiture performed by Wenceslaus, king of the Romans.
From the product so obtained most of the better sort of "Burgundy pitch" of the druggists is prepared.
When Robert died in 9 23, he was succeeded by his brother-in-law, Rudolph, duke of Burgundy, and not by his son Hugh, who is known in history as Hugh the Great, duke of France and Burgundy, and whose domain extended from the Loire to the frontiers of Picardy.
In the 10th century the duchy of Burgundy fell into the hands of Hugh the Great, father of Hugh Capet, on whose death in 956 it passed to his son Otto, and, in 965, to his son Henry.
This branch of the Capetians is also distinguished by its union with the Habsburgs, through the marriage of Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, with Maximilian, afterwards the emperor Maximilian I.
To arrest his progress, a Crusade, preached by Boniface IX., led by John the Fearless of Burgundy, and joined chiefly by French knights, was directed down the valley of the Danube into the Balkans; but the old faults stigmatized by de Mezieres, divisio and pro Aria voluntas, were the ruin of the crusading army, and at the battle of Nicopolis it was signally defeated.
His son Paul, called the duc de Beauvillier, was several times ambassador to England; he became' chief of the council of finance in 1685, governor of the dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berri from 1689 to 1693, minister of state in 1691, and grandee of Spain in 1701.
In 1 434 he received a gift from Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, for his military services, but on the conclusion of the peace of Arras in the next year he abandoned soldiering for diplomacy.
The next ten years were spent in France, where he was connected with Georges de la Tremoille, and afterwards entered the household of Pierre de Breze, at that time seneschal of Poitou, by whom he was employed on missions to the duke of Burgundy, in an attempt to establish better relations between Charles VII.
A new cause of trouble arose when the duchy of Burgundy was left without a ruler in November 1361, and was claimed by Charles; but, lacking both allies and money, he was unable to prevent the French king from seizing Burgundy, while he himself returned to Navarre.
Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.
The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V., caused that pontiff's successor, Eugenius IV., to think that the synod of Basel was doomed to certain failure.
With the duke of Burgundy; finally, they investigated and judged numbers of private cases, lawsuits between prelates, members of religious orders and holders of benefices, thus themselves falling into one of the serious abuses for which they had most blamed the court of Rome.
It should be noted that this name occurs again in the middle ages in Burgundy, not far from Dijon; in all probability a detachment of this people had settled in that spot in the 5th or 6th century.
He died in 481 and was succeeded by his son Clovis, who conquered the whole of Gaul with the exception of the kingdom of Burgundy and Provence.
Avesnes was founded in the 11th century, and formed a countship which in the 15th century passed to the house of Burgundy and afterwards to that of Habsburg.
Dunkirk is said to have originated in a chapel founded by St Eloi in the 7th century, round which a small village speedily sprang up. In the 10th century it was fortified by Baldwin III., count of Flanders; together with that province it passed successively to Burgundy, Austria and Spain.
As the capital of the free county of Burgundy, or Franche-Comte, it was united with the German kingdom when Frederick I.
It afterwards became detached from the German kingdom, and during the 14th century came into the possession of the dukes of Burgundy, from whom it passed to the emperor Maximilian I., and his grandson Charles V.
Charles's first wife was Blanche, daughter of Otto IV., count of Burgundy, and of Matilda (Mahaut), countess of Artois, to whom he was married in 1307.
In May 1314, by order of King Philip IV., she was arrested and imprisoned in the Chateau-Gaillard with her sisterin-law Marguerite, daughter of Robert II., duke of Burgundy, and wife of Louis Hutin, on the charge of adultery with two gentlemen of the royal household, Philippe and Gautier d'Aunai.
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
1329) with Otto IV., Artois passed to the house of Burgundy, in whose possession it remained till the marriage of Mary, the daughter of Charles the Bold, to the archduke Maximilian brought it to the house of Austria.
She had two markings on her back: One burgundy, the familiar Immortal mating tattoo, and the new one black, positioned directly beneath the original.
The foundation of the abbey of St Maurice (Agaunum) in the Valais is usually ascribed to Sigismund of Burgundy (515).
When the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles was acquired by the emperor Conrad II.
Count of upper Burgundy to cede some districts to him in 1281, forced the citizens of Berne to pay the tribute which they had previously refused, and in 1289 marched against Philip's successor, Otto IV., and compelled him to do homage.
On the 18th of August 1477, by his marriage at Ghent to Mary, who had just inherited Burgundy and the Netherlands from her father Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, he effected a union of great importance in the history of the house of Habsburg.
This treaty provided that Maximilian's daughter Margaret should marry Charles, the dauphin of France, and have for her dowry Artois and FrancheComte, two of the provinces in dispute, while the claim of Louis on the duchy of Burgundy was tacitly admitted.
On the other hand, mayors like Flaochat (in Burgundy) and Erkinoald (in Neustria) stirred up the great nobles, who claimed the right to take part in their nomination, against the king.
It must be observed that from 639 there were generally separate mayors of Neustria, Austrasia and Burgundy, even when Austrasia and Burgundy formed a single kingdom; the mayor was a sign of the independence of the region.
In 1254 it received a charter from William II., count of Holland, similar to that of Haarlem, but in the 15th century duke Philip the Good of Burgundy made the impoverishment of the town, due to ill-government, the excuse for establishing an oligarchical regime, by charters of 1436 and 1437.
Snails are reared in some parts of the country as an article of food, those of Burgundy being specially esteemed.
The great governments were: Alsace, Saintonge and Angoumois, Anjou, Artois, Aunis, Auvergne, Beam and Navarre, Berry, Bourbonnais, Bourgogne (Burgundy), Bretagne (Brittany),, Champagne, DauphinC, Flandre, Foix, Franche-Comt, Guienne and Gascogne (Gascony), Ile-de-France, Languedoc, Limousin, Lorraine, Lyonnais.
On the death of the usurper Rudolph (Raoul), Ralph of Burgundy, Hugh the Great, count of Paris, and the other nobles between whom France was divided, chose Louis for their king, and the lad was brought over from England and consecrated at Laon on the 19th of June 936.
The beginning of his reign was marked by a disastrous irruption of the Hungarians into Burgundy and Aquitaine (937).
His sister's son, John of Burgundy, count of Nevers, now received the countship, which passed through heiresses, in the 15th century, to the house of Cleves, and to that of Lorraine-Guise.
In 1548 Charles laid before the states a scheme for making the Netherlands an integral part of the empire under the name of the Circle of Burgundy; but the refusal of the German Electors to make his only son Philip king of the Romans led him to abandon the project, which was never renewed.
At Nancy Charles was himself among the slain, leaving his only daughter Mary of Burgundy, then in her twentieth year, sole iheiress to his possessions.
Claimed the of reversion of the French fiefs, and seized Burgundy, Mary Burgundy Franche Comte and Artois.
But Philip's preparations were now complete, and Alva set out from Italy at the head of a force of some io,000 veteran troops, Spaniards and Italians, afterwards increased by a body of Germans, with which, after marching through Burgundy, Lorraine and Luxemburg, he reached the Netherlands (August 8), and made his entry into Brussels a fortnight later.
Kirk, History of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (3 vols., 1863-1868).
The quality, too, owing to bad weather at the time of vintage, was not good; Italian wine, indeed, never is sufficiently good to compete with the best wines of other countries, especially France (thotigh there is more opening for Italian wines of the Bordeaux and,Burgundy type); nor will many kinds of it stand keeping, partly owing to their natural qualities and partly to the insufficient care devoted to their preparation.
No policy could have been less far-sighted; for Charles V., joint heir to Austria, Burgundy, Castile and Aragon, the future overwhelming rival of France, was already born.
He assumed the title of archchancellor of Gaul and Arles (or Burgundy), and in 1315 admitted the claim of the archbishop of Cologne to the highest place of ter the archbishop of Mainz among the spiritual princes of the empire.
He had shared in the careful education given to his elder brother, Louis, duke of Burgundy, by Fenelon, and was himself known as duke of Anjou.
He glanced around the penthouse decorated in dark colors with flashes of burgundy and brown, attention settling on the familiar skyline visible through the window.