These schepenen appointed in their turn from the citizens to assist them a body of sworn councillors (gezworencn or :lures), whose presidents, styled " burgomasters," had the supervision of the communal finances.
Two of the number are nominated by their colleagues as burgomasters, who preside in succession for a year at a time and hold office four years, one retiring every two years.
In 1311, the two burgomasters, now chiefs of the municipality, take the place of the royal Schultheiss.
Two aldermen, later styled burgomasters, were to preside, the one over the Schepenen, the other over the Raad, sharing this presidency with two episcopal officials.
The first chamber consists of the adult princes of the blood, two representatives of the Lutheran and one of the Roman Catholic Church, a representative of Leipzig university, the proprietor (or a deputy) of the Herrschaft of Wildenfels, a proprietor of the mediatized domains, two of Standesherrschaften, one of those of four estates in fee, the superintendent at Leipzig, a deputy of the collegiate institution at Wurzen, 12 deputies elected by owners of nobiliar estates, ten landed proprietors and five other members nominated by the king and the burgomasters of eight towns.
In the lower, under the energetic direction of two burgomasters, De Brouckere and Anspach, not less sweeping changes were effected.
The duchies had always been under a government of fetidal character, the grand dukes having the executive entirely in their hands (though acting through ministers), while the duchies shared a diet (Landtag), meeting for a short session each year, and at other times represented by a committee, and consisting of - the proprietors of knights estates (Rittergitter), known as the Ri.iterschaft, and the Landschaft or burgomasters of certain towns.
In the 14th century a narrow patrician council selected from the Richerzeche, with two burgomasters, was supreme.
Rostock, however, never entirely lost the independence which it enjoyed as a Hanse town; and in 1788, as the result of long contentions with the rulers of Mecklenburg, it secured for itself a peculiar and liberal municipal constitution, administered by three burgomasters and three chambers.
The burgomasters are appointed by the crown, except at Copenhagen, where they are elected by the town council, subject to royal approbation.
On the 8th of October the two burgomasters, Hans Nansen and Kristoffer Hansen, proposed that the realm of Denmark should be made over to the king as a hereditary kingdom, without prejudice to the privileges of the Estates; whereupon they proceeded to Brewer's Hall, and informed the Estate of burgesses there assembled of what had been done.
By the middle of the 13th century there were two burgomasters (magistri burgensium).
Three of the four burgomasters and two of the senators, however, had henceforth to be graduates in law.
Frequently consiliarii), with one, two or more burgomasters (Biirgermeister, magistri civium, proconsules) at its head.
(It was only after the Renaissance that the town-council came to be styled senate, and the burgomasters in Latin documents, consules.) As units of local government the towns must be considered as originally placed on the same legal ba s is as the villages, viz.
In a short time, however, the latter appears to have been assisted by a council, consisting of 13 consules (burgomasters) and 13 scabini (assessors), who collectively formed the governing and administrative body under the presidency of the bailiff.
One window contains the arms of the burgomasters of Amsterdam from 1578 to 1767.
He was appointed secretary to the city (1562) and secretary to the burgomasters (1564).
Fourteen noblemen,three burgomasters,fourteen town-councillors and about twenty common citizens of Stockholm were then drowned or decapitated.
In Belgian municipalities the burgomasters are the heads of the force, which is under their control.
In the large towns the burgomasters must be jurists, arid are paid.