Otto encouraged this revolution by placing the enclosures of the chief burghs beyond the jurisdiction of the counts.
In this way, Qwing to the dislocation of the ancient aristocracy, to the enlarged jurisdiction,of a power so democratic as the episcopate, and to the increased privileges of the burghs, feudalism received a powerful check in Italy.
It is here, at the Heribert present epoch and for the next two centuries, that the and the pith and nerve of the Italian nation must be sought; Lombard and among the burghs of Lombardy, Milan, the eldest burghs.
It must not, however, be supposed that .at this epoch the liberties of the burghs were fully developed.
Under their consuls the Italian burghs rose to a great height of prosperity and splendour.
The next great chapter in the history of against Italian evolution is the war of the burghs against the nobles, nobles.
A network of party policy embraces and dominates the burghs of Italy, bringing the most distant centres into relation, and by the very division of the country augmenting the sense of nationality.
The contest being carried on by warfare, it followed that these captains in the burghs were chosen on account of military skill; and, since the nobles were men of arms by profession, members of ancient houses took the lead again in towns where they had been absorbed into the bourgeoisie.
Musselburgh joins with Leith and Portobello (the Leith Burghs) in returning one member to parliament.
Forres is one of the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs, the other members being Nairn, Fortrose and Inverness.
Derby under Guthrum was one of the five Danish burghs, but in 917 was recovered by i thelfla d.
He was afterwards successively elected for Middlesex (1830), Kilkenny (1837) and for the Montrose burghs (1842), in the service of which constituency he died.
Hence, though the village of Canongate grew up beside the abbey of David I., and Edinburgh was a place of sufficient importance to be reckoned one of the four principal burghs as a judicatory for all commercial matters, nevertheless, even so late as 1450, when it became for the first time a walled town, it did not extend beyond the upper part of the ridge which slopes eastwards from the castle.
Beyond the walls lay the burghs of Calton, Easter and Wester Portsburgh, the villages of St Cuthbert's, Moutrie'sHill,Broughton,Canonmills, SilvermillsandDeanhaugh - all successively swallowed up in the extension of the modern city.
The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
Kirkwall belongs to the Wick district group of parliamentary burghs, the others being Cromarty, Dingwall, Dornoch and Tain.
It comprises the royal and police burghs of Anstruther Easter (pop. 1190), Anstruther Wester (501) and Kilrenny (2542), and lies 9 m.
Dunbar used to form one of the Haddington district group of parliamentary burghs, but its constituency was merged in that of the county in 1885.
Having been elected M.P. for the Ayr burghs in 1818, he devoted the greater part of his life to the promotion of Liberal reforms. In 1820 he married the only daughter of Sir Samuel Romilly.
Maximilian was planning a journey into Italy in order to be crowned emperor at Rome, and was levying subsidies from the imperial burghs for his expenses.
In 1775 Port Glasgow was created a burgh of barony and since 1832 has formed one of the Kilmarnock parliamentary burghs (with Kilmarnock, Dumbarton, Renfrew and Rutherglen).
Bervie unites with Arbroath, Brechin, Forfar and Montrose in returning one member (for the "Montrose burghs") to parliament.
In England the franchises enjoyed by burgesses, freemen and other consuetudinary constituencies in burghs, were dependent on the character of the burgagetenure.
It forms one of the Kilmarnock group of parliamentary burghs, with Dumbarton, Port-Glasgow, Renfrew and Kilmarnock.
After the murder of William de Burgh, 3rd earl of Ulster (1333), the Bourkes (de Burghs) of the collateral male line, rejecting the claim of William's heiress (the wife of Lionel, son of King Edward III.) to the succession, succeeded in holding the bulk of the De Burgh possessions, what is now Mayo falling to the branch known by the name of "MacWilliam Oughter," who maintained their virtual independence till the time of Elizabeth.
Through the favour of Lord Bute, he was returned to parliament for the Ayr burghs in 1761.
Peterhead is one of the Elgin district group of parliamentary burghs, with Banff, Cullen, Elgin, Inverurie and Kintore.
It unites with Airdrie, Falkirk, Lanark and Linlithgow to form the Falkirk district of burghs, which returns one member to parliament.
Nairn belongs to the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs (Forres, Fortrose, Inverness and Nairn).
With Ayr, Campbeltown, Inveraray and Irvine (the Ayr burghs), it unites to send one member to parliament.
A celebrated beauty, a maid of honour and bridesmaid of Queen Victoria, she married, on the 10th of December 1843, Archibald, Lord Dalmeny (1809-1851), member for the Stirling Burghs, who became a lord of the adrriralty under Melbourne.
The burgh unites with Montrose, Arbroath, Brechin and Inverbervie (the Montrose group of burghs) in returning one member to parliament.
Stirling is under the jurisdiction of a council with provost and bailies, and, along with Culross, Dunfermline, Inverkeithing and Queensferry (the Stirling burghs) returns a member; to Parliament.
The area of the city extends to 6602 acres, the burghs of Old Aberdeen and Woodside, and the district of Torry (for parliamentary purposes in the constituency of Kincardineshire) to the south of the Dee, having been incorporated in 1891.
The town is governed by a provost, bailies and council, and unites with Selkirk and Galashiels (together known as the Border burghs) to send a member to parliament.
The earldom of Ulster, the old inheritance of the De Burghs, had descended to him from Lionel, duke of Clarence; the earldom of March came from the Mortimers, and the dukedom of York and the earldom of Cambridge from his paternal ancestry.
Called to the bar in 1807, he was elected member of parliament for the Inverness burghs in 1807, and having gained some reputation as a speaker in the House of Commons, he was made a lord of the treasury in December 1813, an office which he held until August 1819, when he became secretary to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland and a privy councillor.
But while he notes that in Perth the act was that of "the rascal multitude," he was glad to claim in St Andrews the support of the civic "authority"; and indeed the burghs, which were throughout Europe generally in favour of freedom, soon became in Scotland a main support of the Reformation.
The town is under the control of a council with provost and bailies, and combines with Airdrie, Hamilton, Lanark and Linlithgow (the Falkirk group of burghs) to return a member to parliament.
His charters to landowners and burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, but now more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents for the unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted the under kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites, or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, though Celtic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in the Celtic regions, as in Galloway.
The burghs were not actually the creations of David and William the Lion, but the rights, duties and privileges which had gradually developed in the towns were in the time of these kings codified and confirmed by charters; the towns had magistrates of their own election, courts, and legalized open markets.
In addition to royal burghs, there were burghs of nobles and of bishops, and the provostship was apt to become, by custom, almost hereditary in a local noble family, which protected the burgesses.