The four wall-surfaces that flank the three western doorways are decorated with very beautiful sculpture in relief, once ornamented with colour, the designs for which, according to Burckhardt, must be ascribed to the architect of the whole, though executed by other (but still Sienese, not Pisan) hands.
Gifford Palgrave and Sir Lewis Pelly amongst Englishmen, and Karsten Niebuhr, John Lewis Burckhardt, Visconte, Joseph Halevy and others, amongst foreign travellers.
Burckhardt, Travels in Syria (1822); J.
Burckhardt, Bilder aus d.
Taraba, according to John Lewis Burckhardt, is a considerable town, surrounded by palm groves and gardens, and watered by numerous rivulets, and famous for its long resistance to Mehemet Ali's forces in 1815.
Burckhardt at Taif in 1814 and those of the French officers with the Egyptian expeditions into the country from 1814 to 1837.
Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia (London, 1829); F.
Burckhardt, he was sent at Salt's charges to Thebes, whence he removed with great skill the colossal bust of Rameses II., commonly called Young Memnon, which he shipped for England, where it is in the British Museum.
By Burckhardt at Berlin in 1801.
Burckhardt in 1812.
The fine picture of "Christ bearing the Cross" (wrongly ascribed to Giorgione), according to Burckhardt once in the Palazzo Loschi, is now in the Gardner collection at Boston, U.S.A. The most important manufacture is that of silk, which employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
Burckhardt, who had already won a reputation as the discoverer of Petra, and whose experience of travel in Arab lands and knowledge of Arab life qualified him to pass as a Moslem, even in the headquarters of Islam.
Burckhardt landed in Jidda in July 1814, when Mehemet Ali had already driven the Wahhabi invaders out of Hejaz, and was preparing for his farther advance against their stronghold in Nejd.
He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.
Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.
Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia (aondon, 1829); R.
Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G.
On the relation of Neoplatonism to Christianity, and the historical importance of Neoplatonism generally, see the leading church histories, and the Histories of Dogma by Baur, Nitzsch, Harnack, &c. Compare also Loffler, Der Platonismus der Kirchenvater (1782); Huber, Die Philosophie der Kirchenvdter (1859); Tzchirner, Fall des Heidenthums (1829), pp. 574618; Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantin's des Grossen (1853); Chastel, Hist.
An application to the hyperbolic logarithm of is given by Burckhardt in the introduction to his Table des diviseurs for the second million.
In the tribune are fine mosaics of the 9th century, which, Burckhardt remarks, completely break with Byzantine tradition.
Vitale at Ravenna (though Burckhardt considers it to belong to about A.D.
The internal façade of the Palazzo Ginetti is finely decorated with stucco, and has a curious detached baroque staircase by Martino Lunghi the younger, which Burckhardt calls unique if only for the view to which its arched colonnades serve as a frame.
It is considered by Burckhardt the finest building of its kind.
Burckhardt, Diirers Aufenthalt in Basel, 1492-1494 (Munich, 1892); G.
Two Syrian church inscriptions bearing the name, one at Ezr'a .and the other at Shaka, found by Burckhardt and Porter, and discussed by J.
The first European to describe them was Burckhardt (1812).
Notices or extracts had been published by Seetzen (c. 1808), Kosegarten (1818), Apetz (1819), and Burckhardt (1819), when in 1829 Dr S.
Mankind did not, as Burckhardt and J.
Of works on the Renaissance in general may be mentioned Jacob Burckhardt, Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (Eng.
Philippi, Die terti¢ren and quartdren Versteinerungen Chiles (Leipzig, 1887), (includes also descriptions of some Cretaceous fossils), and Los Fo'siles secondarios de Chile (Santiago, 1899); Karl Burckhardt, " Profils geologiques transversaux de la Cordillere argentino-chilienne.
The peak is due north of Sheddad, the hamlet which Burckhardt (i.
The curvature of the range around the Brazilian massif, and the position of the zone of older rocks upon the eastern flank, led Suess to the conclusion that the Andes owe their origin to an overthrust from east to west, and that the Vorland lies beneath the Pacific. In the south Wehrli and Burckhardt maintain that the thrust came from the west, and they look upon the ancient rocks of Argentina as the Vorland.
(London, 1899); The Bolivian Andes (London and New York, 1901); Carl Burckhardt, Expedition geologique dans la region Andine, 38° - 39° S.
(London, 1900); Paul Kruger, Die chilenische Renihue Expedition (Berlin, 1900); Carl Burckhardt, " Profils geologiques transversaux de la Cordillera argentino-chilienne," Anaies del Museo de La Plata (1900); Argentine-Chilian Boundaries in the Cordillera de los Andes, Argentine Evidence (London, 1900); " South America; Outline of its Physical Geography," Geogr.
JAKOB BURCKHARDT (1818-1897), Swiss writer on art, was born at Basel on the 25th of May 1818; he was educated there and at Neuchatel, and till 1839 was intended to be a pastor.
About half of the original edition was devoted to the art of the Renaissance, so that Burckhardt was naturally led on to the preparation of his two other celebrated works, Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860, 5th German edition 1896, and English translation, by S.
Hamilton (London, 1900-1902);1902); Jacob Burckhardt, Geschichte der Renaissance in Italien (4th ed., 1904); J.
4 Ibn Jubair speaks of fourteen steps, Ali Bey of four, Burckhardt of three.
Burckhardt in 1814 estimated the crowd at Arafa at 70,000, Burton in 1853 at 50,000, `Abd el-Razzak in 1858 at 60,000.
The Travels of Aly Bey (Badia, London, 1816) describe a visit in 1807; Burton's Pilgrimage (3rd ed., 1879) often supplements Burckhardt; Von Maltzan's Wallfahrt nach Mekka (1865) is lively but very slight.
The length of the sinuous main axis of the city from the farthest suburbs on the Medina road to the suburbs in the extreme north, now frequented by Bedouins, is, according to Burckhardt, 3500 paces.
This is the cross-road traversed by Burckhardt (i.