Special experiments were made to determine the work done against resistances outside the vessel of water, which amounted to about 006 of the whole, and corrections were made for the loss of heat by radiation, the buoyancy of the air affecting the descending weights, and the energy dissipated when the weights struck the floor with a finite velocity.
The drill is thus allowed to fall freely, instead of being partly upheld by the buoyancy of the water, as in earlier wells.
The body is in equilibrium under two forces: - (i.) its weight W acting vertically downward body, and (ii.) the buoyancy of the of the displaced fluid, and acting B, the C.G.
Will move from G to G 1 the reduced distance G1G2 = c (P/W); and if B, called the centre of buoyancy, moves to B 1, along the curve of buoyancy BB 1, the normal of this curve at B 1 will be the new vertical B1G1, meeting the old vertical in a point M, the centre of curvature of BB I, called the metacentre.
If G was above M, the tangent drawn from G to the evolute of B, and normal to the curve of buoyancy, would give the vertical in a new position of equilibrium.
Tons, (4) w denoting the density of water in tons/ft.', and W =wV, for a displacement of V ft.3 This couple, combined with the original buoyancy W through B, is equivalent to the new buoyancy through B, so that W.BB 1 =wAk 2 tan 8, (5) BM =BB 1 cot B=Ak e /V, (6) giving the radius of curvature BM of the curve of buoyancy B, in terms of the displacement V, and Ak e the moment of inertia of the water-line area about an axis through F, perpendicular to the plane of displacement.
With no reserve of buoyancy W =W', and the couple N, tending to increase 0, has the effect of diminishing the metacentric height by h ft.
With a view to enable this vessel to carry at good speed the thickest possible armour compatible with buoyancy, Ericsson reduced the exposed surface to the least possible area.
Similarly in the case of the weighing in water, account must be taken of the buoyancy of the weights, and also, if absolute densities be required, of the density of water at the temperature of the experiment.
Neglecting the very small buoyancy of the vapour, the hydrostatic pressure P at the foot of the column of solution is h g p where h is the height of the column and p the mean density of the solution.
The needs for these are obvious - buoyancy in water and resistance to wetting for the first, some form of parachute for the second, and some attaching mechanism or attractive structure for the third.
In private life his gaiety, his buoyancy, his high breeding, made even his political opponents forget their differences; and even the warmest altercations on public affairs were merged in his large hospitality and cordial social relations.
While, therefore, there is apparently no correspondence between the area of the wing and the animal to be raised, there is, except in the case of sailing insects, birds and bats, an unvarying relation as to the weight and number of oscillations; so that the problem of flight would seem to resolve itself into one of weight, power, velocity and small surfaces, versus buoyancy, debility, diminished speed and extensive surfaces - weight in either case being a sine qua non.
In this we have a partial explanation of the buoyancy of insects, and the great lifting power possessed by birds and bats, - the bats carrying their young without inconvenience, the birds elevating surprising quantities of fish, game, carrion, &c. (fig.
This explains how the wing furnishes a persistent buoyancy alike when it rises and when it falls (fig.