(b) Organized associations, including - (1) international commissions (internationale Verwaltungsvereine, such as international postal and telegraph unions, &c.); (2) the Staatenbund or confederation of states; (3) real unions of states as distinguished from personal; (4) the Bundesstaat or federal state.'
For many years one of the burning questions in the politics of ' The distinction between the Staatenbund and the Bundesstaat is discussed in the articles Confederation and Federal Government.
Even if the origin was a compact or contract, after the "United States" were formed by a "constitutional act" there no longer existed a mere contractual relation: there existed a state to which all were subject, and which all must obey (von Stengel, Staatenbund and Bundesstaat; Jahrbuch fiir Gesetzgebung, 1898, p. 754; Cooley, Principles of Constitutional Law, pp. 21, 102).
Westerkamp, Staatenbund and Bundesstaat (Leipzig, 1892); J.
Charmatz, Der demokratischnationale Bundesstaat Oesterreich (1904); Oesterreich als Volksstaat (1918); Deutsch-oesterreichische Politik (1907); F.
The word "confederation," as distinct from "federation" has been sometimes, though not universally, used to distinguish from such a federal state (Bundesstaat) a mere union of states (Staatenbund) for mutual aid, and the promotion of interests common to all (see Confederation).