By the death of Harun in 809, Nicephorus was left free to deal with the Bulgarian king, Krum, who was harassing his northern frontiers.
After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
Servian settlements exist in various parts of northern Albania; there is a strong Bulgarian colony in the neighbourhood of Dibra and Ochrida; farther south, Mount Zygos and the Pindus range - the "Great Walachia" of the middle ages - are inhabited by Vlachs or Tzintzars, who possibly number 70,000.
The large number of Slavonic local names in Albania, even in districts where no trace of a Slavonic population exists, bears witness to the extensive Servian and Bulgarian immigrations in the early middle ages, but the original inhabitants gradually ousted or assimilated the invaders.
To these seven groups, which are included under the general appellation of Malissori, or "highlanders," may be added the Malsia of Dibra, who extend to the west and north of that town, and form a large separate group; they are notorious for their fierce lawless character, and maintain themselves by plundering the Bulgarian peasants in their neighbourhood.
The Orthodox Church has metropolitans at Prizren, Durazzo, Berat, Iannina and Kortcha; the Bulgarian exarchate maintains a bishop at Dibra.
The infinitive is not found; as in Greek, Rumanian and Bulgarian, it is replaced by the subjunctive with a particle.
A new Bulgarian dynasty, that of Shishman, was founded at Ochrida after the death of Simeon.
Shishman's son Samuel (976-1014) captured Durazzo; he extended his sway over a great part of the Balkan Peninsula, but was eventually defeated in 1014 by the emperor Basil II., who put out the eyes of 1.5,000 Bulgarian prisoners.
Belisarius remained at Constantinople in tranquil retirement until 559, when an incursion of Bulgarian savages spread a panic through the metropolis, and men's eyes were once more turned towards the neglected veteran, who placed himself at the head of a mixed multitude of peasants and soldiers, and repelled the barbarians with his wonted courage and adroitness.
In his boyhood and early youth he was frequently at St Petersburg, and he accompanied his uncle, who was much attached to him, during the Bulgarian campaign of 1877.
The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (September 18, 1883).
He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the Servian invasion, and after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued King Milan into Servian territory as far as Pirot, which he captured (November 27).
This was partially remedied after the Bulgarian annexation of Eastern Rumelia, in 1885, had driven the Moslems of that country to emigrate in like manner to Adrianople; but the advantage was counterbalanced by the establishment of hostile Bulgarian tariffs.
Robilant, for whom the Skiernie~vice pact was no secret, followed a firmly independent policy throughout the Bulgarian crisis of 1885-1886, declining to be drawn into any action beyond that required by the treaty of Berlin and the protection.
Towards Prince Bjsmarck Robilant maintained an attitude of dignified independence, and as, in the spring of 1886, the moment for the renewal of the triple alliance drew near, he profited by the development of the Bulgarian crisis and the threatened Franco-Russian understanding to secure from the central powers something more than the bare territorial guarantee of the original treaty.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
SOFIA (Bulgarian Sredetz, the middle town, a name now little used), the capital of Bulgaria, situated almost in the centre of an upland plain, about 1700 ft.
Russia was 'the seat of the empire' of the Khazars, who drove the Bulgarians, descendants of the Huns, from the Don, one Section of them migia.tiug up thu Volga to found there the Bulgarian empire, and the remainder travelling towards the Danube.
Siberia; (c) the Volga Finns, or rather the old Bulgarian branch, to which belong the Mordvinians, and the Cheremisses in Kazan, Kostroma and Vyatka, though they are classified by some authors with the following: (d) the Permyaks, or Cis-Uralian Finns, including the Votiaks on the E.
The Bulgarian government, first under Prince Alexander and afterwards under the direction of M.
"ALEXANDER STAMBOLIISKI (1879-), Bulgarian statesman, was born at Slavovitsa in Bulgaria Sept.
In 869 the see of Athens became an archbishopric. In 995 Attica was ravaged by the Bulgarians under their tsar Samuel, but Athens escaped; after the defeat of Samuel at Belasitza (1014) the emperor Basil II., who blinded 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners, came to Athens and celebrated his triumph by a thanksgiving service in the Parthenon (1018).
Servo-Bulgarian War >>
At his coronation he had proclaimed his purpose to revive the ancient Servian empire; in 1378 he had married the daughter of the last Bulgarian tsar; and it is probable that he dreamed of founding an empire which should extend from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.
Allowing for certain battalions unformed, there are altogether 309 nizam battalions; 20 separate chasseur battalions, of four companies each; 4 special chasseur battalions stationed on the Bulgarian frontier - total, 333 battalions in the first line.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
The public debt council consented with good grace, although the minister of finance, by omitting to consult that council during the progress of negotiations, lost sight of the fact that a sum of £T87,823 was due to the public debt administration on account of arrears of the Eastern Rumelian annuity up to December 1887, and that a further sum of £T430,741 was due by the Bulgarian to the Turkish government itself in compensation Tor the Rustchuk-Varna railway under the Treaty of Berlin.
An important event not to be passed over without mention is the grant on the 10th of March 1870 of the firman instituting the Bulgarian exarchate, thus severing the Bulgarian Church from Text in Holland, p. 212.
This concession, given under strong pressure from Russia, aroused the deepest resentment of the Greeks, and was the principal factor in the awakening of the Bulgarian national spirit which subsequent events have done so much to develop. Russian influence at Constantinople had been gradually increasing, and towards the end of 1870 the tsar took advantage of the temporary disabling of France to declare himself no longer bound by those clauses of the Treaty of Paris which restricted Russia's liberty of possessing warships on the Black Sea.
External influences and latent fanaticism were active; a serious insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, and the efforts to quell it almost exhausted Turkey's resources; the example spread to Bulgaria, where abortive outbreaks in September 1875 and May 1876 led to those cruel measures of repression which were known as " the Bulgarian atrocities," 3 Mussulman public feeling was inflamed, and an attempt at Salonica to induce a Christian girl who had embraced Islam to return to her faith caused the murder of two foreign consuls by a fanatical mob.
The war was fought in two chief theatres of operations - the less important in Macedonia, against the Serbian, Greek and Montenegrin armies, assisted by two Bulgarian divisions; the more important in Eastern Thrace against the Bulgarians, later assisted by a considerable Serbian force.
8, anxious to forestall a Bulgarian column aiming at the same objective.
The heavy and decisive operations of the war were carried out by the Bulgarian army.
The main Bulgarian advance was made south-eastward through Eastern Thrace.
The fortress of Adrianople, containing a large Turkish garrison, was thus isolated and left to Bulgarian investment.
A great attack by the Bulgarian army on this last defence of the capital took place on Nov.
Bulgarian losses were great, and the army ravaged by cholera; on Dec. 2 an armistice was concluded which remained in force until Jan.
From the Bulgarian frontier at Tsaribrod, on the railway line between Nish and Sofia.
The town is of great strategical importance, for which reason the Russian plenipotentiaries at the Berlin congress (1878) stubbornly tried to include it within the Bulgarian frontier, while Austria and some other Powers insisted that it should be given to Servia.
His forceful spirit was equally conspicuous in his opposition to the Church Discipline Act of 1874, and in his denunciation of the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876.
The city is the headquarters of an army corps, and the see of an Orthodox Greek archbishop, of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Albanians and of a Bulgarian bishop. Its principal buildings are the citadel, the palace of the vali or provincial governor, the Greek and Bulgarian schools, numerous churches and mosques and a Roman aqueduct.