This coupling gear is placed centrally between a pair of buffers; formerly these were often left " dead " - that is, consisted of solid prolongations of the frame of the vehicle, but now they are made to work against springs which take up the shocks that occur when the wagons are thrown violently .against one another in shunting.
As one of Rhyn's buffers, Toby was as trapped on the beach as he was.
Too fast, he felt the buffers' effect on his powers lessen, and magic exploded through him.
When portable cranes are fitted with springs and axle-boxes, drawgear and buffers, so that they can be coupled to an ordinary railway train, they are called " breakdown " or " wrecking " cranes.
In British practice the chains consist of three links, and are of such a length that when fully extended there is a space of a few inches between opposing buffers; this slack facilitates the starting of a heavy train, since the engine is able to start the wagons one by one and the weight of the train is not thrown on it all at once.
In these the central bar which connects the two end links has screw threads cut upon it,;and by means of a lever can be turned so as either to shorten the coupling and bring the vehicles together till their buffers .are firmly pressed together, or to lengthen it to permit the end link to be lifted off the hook.
Another form of coupler, which used to be universal in the United States, though it has now been almost entirely superseded by the automatic coupler, was the " link and pin," which differed fundamentally from the couplers commonly used in Europe, in the fact that it was a buffer as well as a coupler, no :side buffers being fitted.
But the great majority of couplings remain non-automatic. It may be pointed out that the general employment of side buffers in Europe greatly complicates the problem of designing a satisfactory automatic coupling, while to do away with them and substitute the combined buffer-coupling, such as is used in the United States, would entail enormous difficulties in carrying on the traffic during the transition stage.
Gauge weighed at most 35 to 45 tons, and their length between buffers was such that the average load did not exceed 1 ton per foot run.
7=6" =6" --?c --- 14_Si -- over Buffers y TY T 16.
Thus a consolidation engine may weigh 126 tons with a length over buffers of 57 ft., corresponding to an average load of 2.55 tons per ft.
Between buffers (average load 1.8 tons per ft.
Between buffers (average load 2.77 tons per ft.