Since 1891 the national budgets have been calculated in both gold and currency, and both receipts and expenditures have been carried out in this dual system.
At the head of the financial organization of France, and exercising a general jurisdiction, is the minister of finance, who co-ordinates in one general budget the separate budgets prepared by his colleagues and assigns to each ministerial department the sums necessary for its expenses.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
So long as the reserve was available it was drawn upon to supply the void; but when that also was exhausted recourse was had to expedients, such as the borrowing, or rather seizure, of the vakuf revenues (1622) and the sale of crown properties; then ensued a period of barefaced confiscation, until, to restore public confidence in some measure, state budgets were published at intervals, viz.
Although the publication of the budget had only taken place at very irregular intervals, it must also be observed that the published budgets were by no means accurate.
To some extent the real level of military expenditure has been masked by the separation of certain payments into " extraordinary " expenditure, a course which, it is understood, has not been followed in the budgets of the " new regime," and which will not be revived.
As a matter of fact, the marine budgets of the two years are almost identical.
Large deficits in the financial budgets of the state resulted, involving increased taxation and the contracting of loans from foreign countries.
Owing to the amount spent on railways, the Fiume harbour works and other causes, the Hungarian budgets after 1867 showed big annual deficits, until in 1888 great reforms were introduced and the finances of the country were established on a more solid basis.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
The budgets of 1919 and 1920 disclosed deficits of 5 billion and 3 billion kronen respectively, but in that for 1921 the revenue slightly exceeded the expenditure.
The budgets of the four islands in 1904 came to some X30,000, that of Mayotte being about half the total.
The Conference, however, were unanimous in the adoption of the following resolution: " The Conference is of opinion that the restriction of military budgets, which are at present a heavy burden on the world, is extremely desirable for the increase of the material and moral welfare of mankind;" and it passed also the following viceu: " That governments, taking into account the proposals made at the Conference, should examine the possibility of an understanding concerning the limitation of military and naval armaments, and of war budgets."
The declaration of the French government stated that: " France hoped that other nations would grow, as she had done, more and more attached to solutions of international difficulties based upon the respect of justice, and she trusted that the progress of universal opinion in this direction would enable nations to regard the lessening of the present military budgets, declared by the states represented at the Hague to be greatly desirable for the benefit of the material and moral state of humanity, as a practical possibility."
The remainder of the National Liberals only won forty-five seats in 1881, and during the next three years they were without influence on the government; and even Bennigsen, unable to follow Bismarck in his new policy, disgusted at the proposals for biennial budgets and the misuse of government influence at the elections, retired from political life.
A proposal to introduce biennial budgets was for this reason regarded with great suspicion by the Opposition as a reactionary measure, and rejected.
Yet his budgets were enormously greater than ever before.
Russia began the publication of annual budgets in 1866; Egypt has followed the example; so also has Turkey, by an imperial decree of 1875.
In 1859, through a change of administration, the budget was not introduced until the 18th of July, while in 1880 there were two budgets, one introduced in March under Disraeli's administration, and the other in June, under Gladstone's administration.
National budgets are to be discriminated (r) as budgets passing under parliamentary scrutiny and debate from year to year, and (2) budgets emitted on executive authority.
Stourm, Le Budget, son histoire et son mecanisme (1889), which gives a comparative study of the budgets of different countries, is the best book upon the subject.
See also Siedler, Budget and Budgetrecht (1885); Sendel, Ober Budgetrecht (1890); Besson, Le Controle des budgets en France et a l'etranger (1899) Bastable, Public Finance (3rd ed., 1903); Eugene E.
In the classification of the revenue in English budgets and in official returns these charges are deliberately separated from the above sources of the revenue described as taxes, and classed with "revenue derived from other sources."
It must have been with peculiar gratification that he announced to the House of Commons in April 1917 that the Imperial War Cabinet had accepted the principle of Imperial Preference; and that it was hoped that each part of the Empire, having due regard to the interests of the Allies, would give specially favourable treatment and facilities to the produce and manufactures of other parts of the Empire - a hope which, as regards the mother country, was translated into action in the budgets introduced under Mr. Law's leadership after the war.
Gladstone signalized his return to the exchequer by Glad- introducing a series of budgets which excited keen ~ opposition at the time, but in the result largely added to the prosperity of the country.
The first of these great budgets, in 1860, was partly inspired by the necessity of adapting the fiscal system to meet the requirements of a conimercial treaty which, mainly through Cobdens exertions, had been concluded with the emperor of the French.
Mr Gladstone's budgets, made possible by this prosperity, were so many triumphs for Liberalism.
With revolutionary intentions as to reform, this only ended, after several years of normal budgets, in ultimate frustration.
Sir Robert Peel told the house that, in his previous budgets, he had given the manufacturers of the country free access to the raw materials which they used.
Sir Robert Peel, whose original views on protection had been rapidly yielding to the arguments afforded by the success of his own budgets, concluded that it was impossible to provide for the necessities of Ireland without suspending the corn laws; and that, if they were once suspended, it would be equally impossible to restore them.
In federal governments such as the United States, the German empire, or the Argentine republic, the budgets of the several states of the federation have to be consulted, as well as the federal budgets, for a knowledge of the finances.
The principal feature of the successive Egyptian budgets of 1890-1894 was the fiscal relief afforded to the population.
Despite these public works Dr von KBrber found himself unable to induce parliament to vote the Budgets for 1903, rber's 1904 or 1905, and was obliged to revert to the expedient Ko parlia- employed by his predecessors of sanctioning the esti- mentary mates by imperial ordinance under paragraph 14 of diffi- the constitution.
A further Note submitting the programme proposed gave more precision to this item, which thereupon took the following form: " An understanding not to increase for a fixed period the present effectives of the armed military and naval forces, and at the same time not to increase the budgets pertaining thereto; and a preliminary examination of the means by which even a reduction might be effected in future in the forces and budgets above mentioned."
The town is frequently referred to as a model residential suburb; its budgets are very large, its schools are excellent, and, among other things, it has established a township gymnasium.
The reverse is the case with the civil officials, whose salaries in the provinces are paid more regularly than in Constantinople, owing to their being charged on the provincial budgets; the average arrears are from two to three months in Constantinople, and from one to three in the provinces.
The policy adopted after 1890 of incorporating in the ordinary budget the expenditure on war, marine and public works, each under its own head, rendered the extraordinary budget obsolete, but there are still, besides the ordinary budget, budgets annexes, comprising the credits voted to certain establishments under state supervision, e.g.