400; his successor Hsiian Tsang, about 650, states that it then contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples.
During the Buddhist period Muttra became a centre of the new faith.
It is not an outcome of Japanese nature nor yet of Buddhist teaching, but is due to the stress of endeavouring to reach the standards of Western acquirement with grievously inadequate equipment, opportunities and resources.
It probably means "row, line, canon," and is used, in its exact technical sense, of the language of the canon, containing the documents of the Buddhist faith.
Professor Rhys Davids has put forward similar views with respect to the Jatakas and the Sutta Nipata in his Buddhist India, and with respect to the Nikayas in general in the introduction to his Dialogues of the Buddha.
He collected much valuable information on Graeco-Buddhist art and the origins of Indian art.
These scholars (most of them members of the Buddhist Order, but many of them laymen) not only copied and recopied the Indian Pali books, but wrote a very large number themselves.
Highly civilized centres of Buddhist art and industry in the now sand-strewn wastes of the Turkestan desert has been clearly demonstrated by the same great explorer and by Dr M.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
The Manchus and Mongols are chiefly Buddhist, with letters derived from the ancient Syriac. The Manchus are now said to be gradually falling under the influence of Chinese civilization, and to be losing their old nomadic habits, and even their peculiar language.
They are partially Buddhist, and have a peculiar monosyllabic, uninflected language, with writing consisting of symbols, which represent words, not letters.
The Kalmucks are a Buddhist and Mongolian people who originated in a confederacy of tribes dwelling in Dzungaria, migrated to Siberia, and settled on the Lower Volga.
The Buddhist influence is not merely religious, for it is always accompanied by Indian art and literature, and often by an Indian alphabet.
He was a zealous Buddhist and gave the first example of a missionary religion, for by his exertions the faith was spread over all India and Ceylon.
Mr Peppe's article, reproduced in Rhys Davids' Buddhist India, p. 89.
The account of the death and cremation of the Buddha, preserved in the Buddhist canon, states that one-eighth portion of the ashes was presented to the Sakiya clan, and that they built a thupa, or memorial mound, over it.'
This is the Song of Nalaka (the Buddhist Simeon), and the words put in the mouth of the angels who announce the birth to him are: "The Wisdom-child, that jewel so precious, that cannot be matched, has been born at Lumbini, in the Sakiya land, for weal and for joy in the world of men."
All later Buddhist accounts, whether Pali or Sanskrit, repeat the same story.
The Pali is by far the more ancient, including as it does the Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from Ceylon and southern India.
It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.
The Buddhist law is contained in certain sacred books called Dhammathats.
An account of these translations will be found in The Principles of Buddhist Law by Chan Toon (Rangoon, 1894), which is the first attempt to present those principles in something approaching to a systematic form.
They are ancient Buddhist caves dating from the 3rd century before Christ to the 6th century after.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
810, a celebrated Buddhist priest, Kkai, who had spent several years studying in China, compounded out of Buddhism, Confucianism and ShintO a system of doctrine called Ryobu Shinto (Dual Shinto), the prominent tenet of which was that the ShintO deities were merely transmigrations of Buddhist divinities.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
The NO, however, owed its development mainly to Buddhist infltience.
During the medieval era of internecine strife the Buddhist priests were the sole depositaries of literary talent, and seeing that, from the close of the 14th century, the ShintO mime (Kagura) was largely employed by the military class to invo,~ce or acknowledge the assistance of the gods, the monks of Buddha set themselves to compose librettos for this mime, and the performance, thus modified, received the name of NO.
He left a line of descendants extending far into the I5th century, all famous for Buddhist pictures, and some engaged in establishing a native style, the Wa-gwa-ryu.
At the end of the 9th century there were two exotic styles of painting, Chinese and Buddhist, and the beginning of a native style founded upon these.
The chief motives were landscapes of a peculiarly wild and romantic type, animal life, trees and flowers, and figtire compositions drawn from Chinese and Buddhist history and Taoist legend; and these, together with the grand aims and strange shortcomings of its principles and the limited range of its methods, were adopted almost without change by Japan.
It was a noble art, but unfortunately the rivalry of the Buddhist and later native styles permitted it to fall into comparative neglect, and it was left for a few of the faithful, the most famous of whom was a priest of the I 4th century named Kawo, to preserve it from inanition till the great Chinese renaissance that lent its stamp to the next period.
For the dim light of the Buddhist temple.
The style was applied only to the representations of sacred personages and scenes, and as the traditional forms and attributes of the Brahmanic and Buddhist divinities were mutable only within narrow limits, the subjects seldom afforded scope for originality of design or observation of nature.
The principal Buddhist painters down to the 14th century were members of the Kos, Takuma and Kasuga lines, the first descended from Kanaoka, the second from Takuma Tamuji (ending 10th century), and the third from Fujiwara no Motomitsu (I 11 century).
Talented representatives of the Kose, Takuma Thhd and Tosa lines maintained the reputation of the Period, native and Buddhist schools, and the long-neglected Chinese school was destined to undergo a vigorous revival.
The qualities of the new Chinese schools were essentially those of the older dynasties: breadth, simplicity, a daringly calligraphic play of brush that strongly recalled the accomplishments of the famous scribes, anti a coloring that varied between sparing washes of flat local tints and a strength and brilliancy of decorative effort that rivalled even that of the Buddhist pictures.
Setting aside rude prehistoric essays in stone and metal, which have special interest for the antiquary, we have examples of sculpture in wood and metal, magnificent in conception and technique, dating from the earliest periods of what we may term historical Japan; that is, from near the beginning of the great Buddhist propaganda under the emperor Kimmei (540571) and the princely hierarch, ShOtoku Taishi (573621).
Buddhist sculpture was by no means neglected during this period, but there are few works that call for special notice.
The Buddhist sculptors, however, tended to grow more conventional and the metal-workers more naturalistic as the 18th century began to wane.
Massive, towering roofs, which impart an air of stateliness even to a wooden building and yet, by their graceful curves, avoid any suggestion of ponderosity, were still confined to Buddhist edifices.
Dilemmist is also a term used to translate Vaibhashikas, the name of a Buddhist school of philosophy.
Another of Yung-lo's bells is hung in a Buddhist temple outside the north-west angle of the city wall, and is covered both on the inside and outside with the Chinese texts of the Lankavatara Sutra, and the Saddharma pundarika Sutra.
The true Buddhist on the contrary looks forward with enthusiasm to this absorption into eternal bliss.
By the forms of the letters of the inscriptions, and by the architectural details, the age of the monument has been approximately fixed in the 3rd century B.C. The bas-reliefs give us invaluable evidence of the literature, and also of the clothing, buildings and other details of the social conditions of the peoples of Buddhist India at that period.
The subjects are taken from the Buddhist sacred books, more especially from the accounts given in them of the life of the Buddha in his last or in his previous births.
Rhys Davids, Buddhist India (London, 1903).
And described it as containing 30 Buddhist monasteries, with about 3000 monks, and about l00 temples of Hindu gods.
The inscription confirms in every respect the Buddhist story, and makes it certain that, at the time when it was put up, the tradition now handed down in the books was current at the spot.
It is found chiefly where the Buddhist religion prevailed in ancient times, in Bihar and along the foot of the Himalayas and in western India, where it particularly flourishes in the neighbourhood of the Buddhist caves at Ajanta.
In almost every village in the province there is a monastery, where the most regular occupation of one or more of the resident pongyis, or Buddhist monks, is the instruction free of charge of the children of the village.
The royal history traces the lineage of the kings to the ancient Buddhist monarchs of India.
The paintings of which we have any mention were almost limited to representations of Buddhist masters of the Tang dynasty (618 905), notably Wu Tao-zu (8th century), of whose genius romantic stories are related.
The oldest existiog work of this period is a mural decoration in the hail of the temple of Horyu-ji, Nara, attributed to a Korean priest named Donchfl, who lived in Japan in the 6th century; and this painting, in spite of the destructive effects of time and exposure, shows traces of the same power of line, color and composition that stamps the best of the later examples of Buddhist art.
Of his own work few, if any, examples have reached us; and those attributed with more or less probability to his hand are all representations of Buddhist divinities, showing a somewhat formal and conventional design, with a masterly calligraphic touch and perfect harmony of coloring.
Ujjain, known as Avanti in the Buddhist period and as Ozene to the Greeks, is one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus and the traditional capital of King Vikramaditya, at whose court the "nine gems" of Sanskirt literature are said to have flourished.
C. Warren, Buddhism in Translations (Cambridge, Mass., 1896); Mrs Rhys Davids, Buddhist Psychology (London, 1900); K.