Both he and his brother Ananda, who were considerably younger than the Buddha, joined the brotherhood in the twentieth year of the Buddha's ministry.
1 That is by the Arahat, the title the Buddha always uses of himself.
Buddha lived in the centre of Hindu India and among the many gods of the Brahmans.
Heracleitus, who was a generation or two later than the Buddha, had very similar ideas; s and similar ideas are found in post-Buddhistic Indian works.
It is necessary to remember that the Buddha, like other Indian teachers of his period, taught by conversation only.
Another interesting collection is the Jataka book, a set of verses supposed to have been uttered by the Buddha in some of his previous births.
The most interesting of them are the Assa range, with its sandal trees and Buddhist remains; Udayagiri (Sunrise-hill), with its colossal image of Buddha, sacred reservoir, and ruins; and Assagiri, with its mosque of 1719.
All the others continued loyal disciples, but Devadatta, fifteen years afterwards, having gained over the crown prince of Magadha, Ajatasattu, to his side, made a formal proposition, at the meeting of the order, that the Buddha should retire, and hand over the leadership to him, Devadatta (Vinaya Texts, iii.
The Buddha himself is stated in the books to have devoted to it the very first discourse he addressed to the first converts.'
And Professor Windisch has discussed the legends of the temptation in his Mara and Buddha, and those relating to the Buddha's birth in his Buddha's Geburt.
The so-called pagoda of the Great Buddha is the chief native building.
The peaceful progress of Brahmanism was hindered by the doctrine of the Indian prince Gotama, called the Buddha, which grew into one of the greatest religions of the world.
The subjects are taken from the Buddhist sacred books, more especially from the accounts given in them of the life of the Buddha in his last or in his previous births.
The account of the death and cremation of the Buddha, preserved in the Buddhist canon, states that one-eighth portion of the ashes was presented to the Sakiya clan, and that they built a thupa, or memorial mound, over it.'
Sakya Muni, the Buddha, came here from Gaya in the 6th century B.C. (from which time some of the remains may date), in order to establish his religion, which shows that the place was even then a great centre.
52, S4), and on a parallel passage in the ZVlajjhima (J.R.A.S., 18 95, p. 767), tell us that the mother of the future Buddha was on her way from Kapilavastu (Kapilavatthu), the capital of the Sakiyas, to her mother's home at Devadaha, the capital of the adjoining tribe, the Koliyas, to be confined there.
Wisdom Tree, under which the Buddha had attained wisdom) to Ceylon in the 3rd century s.c. The Bodhi Vamsa quotes verses from the Mahavamsa, but draws a great deal of its material from other sources; and it has occasionally preserved details of the older tradition not found in any other sources known to us.
During the medieval era of internecine strife the Buddhist priests were the sole depositaries of literary talent, and seeing that, from the close of the 14th century, the ShintO mime (Kagura) was largely employed by the military class to invo,~ce or acknowledge the assistance of the gods, the monks of Buddha set themselves to compose librettos for this mime, and the performance, thus modified, received the name of NO.
The great image of Lochana Buddha at Nara, for example, would measure 138 ft.
Architects, turners, tilemakers, decorative artists and sculptors, coming from China and from Korea, erected grand temples for the worship of Buddha enshrining images of much beauty and adorned with paintings and carvings of considerable merit.
If the essence of Christianity is winnowed down to a bare imitation of the Man Jesus, and his religion is accepted as Buddhists accept the religion of Buddha, still it cannot be denied that the early Christians put their trust in Christ rather than his religion.
==Elephant== In Siam it is believed that a white elephant may contain the soul of a dead person, perhaps a Buddha; when one is taken the capturer is rewarded and the animal brought to the king to be kept ever afterwards; it cannot be bought or sold.
Mani, following the example of the gnostic Jewish Christians, appears to have held Adam, Noah, Abraham (perhaps zoroaster and Buddha) to be such prophets.
According to Kessler, Mani made use of the teaching of Buddha, at least as far as ethics was concerned.
The name Buddha (Buddas) which occurs in the legendary account of Mani, and perhaps in the latter's own writings, indicates further that he had occupied his attention with Buddhism when engaged in the work of founding his new religion.
To left and right, and at the back, dormitories are excavated opening on to this hall, and in the centre of the back, facing the entrance, an image of the Buddha usually stands in a niche.
Two others are proclamations commemorating visits paid by the king, one to the dome erected over the ashes of Konagamana, the Buddha, another to the birthplace of Gotama, the Buddha.
DEVADATTA, the son of Suklodana, who was younger brother to the father of the Buddha (Mahavastu, iii.
Even Buddhism - originally destitute of ceremonial - has adopted the pilgrimage; and the secondary tradition makes Buddha himself determine its goals: the place where he was born, where he first preached, where the highest insight dawned on him, and where he sank into Nirvana.
There is not a word about God or the soul, not a word about the Buddha or Buddhism.
But the Buddha, while rejecting the sacrifices and the ritualistic magic of the brahmin schools, the animistic superstitions of the people, the asceticism and soultheory of the Jains, and the pantheistic speculations of the poets of the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads, still retained the belief in transmigration.
But as the Buddha did not acknowledge a soul, the link of connexion between one life and the next had to be found somewhere else.
The Buddha found it (as Plato also found it) 1 in the influence exercised upon one life by a desire felt in the previous life.
The most ancient form these exercises took is recorded in the often recurring paragraphs translated in Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha (i.
When the Buddha died these sayings were collected together by his disciples into what they call the Four Nikayas, or "collections."
Other sayings and verses, most of them ascribed, not to the Buddha, but to the disciples themselves, were put into a supplementary Nikaya.
The story begins with his previous births, in which also he was accumulating the Buddha qualities.
And as the Mahavastu was a standard work of a particular sect, or rather school, called the Maha-sanghikas, it has thus preserved for us the theory of the Buddha as held outside the followers of the canon, by those whose views developed, in after centuries, into the Mahayana or modern form of Buddhism in India.
LUMBINI, the name of the garden or grove in which Gotama, the Buddha, was born.
BUDDHISM, the religion held by the followers of the Buddha, and covering a large area in India and east and central Asia.
And the Buddha is elsewhere (Vinaya ii.
When Gotama the Buddha, himself a Kosalan by birth, determined on the use, for the propagation of his religious reforms, of the living tongue of the people, he and his followers naturally made full use of the advantages already gained by the form of speech current through the wide extent of his own country.
Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts (3 vols., Oxford, 1881-1885); Rhys Davids, Milinda (2 vols., Oxford, 1890-1894), Dialogues of the Buddha (Oxford, 1899} H.
But the Buddha is now forgotten there, and the bas relief is reverenced only for the figure of the mother, who has been turned into a tutelary deity of the place.
DHAMMAPALA, the name of one of the early disciples of the Buddha, and therefore constantly chosen as their name in religion by Buddhist novices on their entering the brotherhood.
This proposal was rejected, and Devadatta is said in the tradition to have successfully instigated the prince to the execution of his aged father and to have made three abortive attempts to bring about the death of the Buddha (Vinaya Texts, iii.
There is no mention in the canon as to how or when Devadatta died; but the commentary on the Jataka, written in the 5th century A.D., has preserved a tradition that he was swallowed up by the earth near Savatthi, when on his way to ask pardon of the Buddha (Jataka, iv.
It is a striking example of the way in which such legends grow, that it is only the latest of these authorities, Hsiian Tsang, who says that, though ostensibly approaching the Buddha with a view to reconciliation, Devadatta had concealed poison in his nail with the object of murdering the Buddha.
He does not call himself the Buddha, and his followers never address him as such.
Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha, i.
71-73, translated by Rhys Davids in Dialogues of the Buddha, i.
Between them these first two collections contain 186 dialogues, in which the Buddha, or in a few cases one of his leading disciples, is represented as engaged in conversation on some one of the religious, or philosophic, or ethical points in that system which we now call Buddhism.
After a profession of faith in the Buddha, the doctrine and the order, there follows a paragraph setting out the thirty-four constituents of the human body - bones, blood, nerves and so on - strangely incongruous with what follows.
The Buddha is represented, on various occasions during his long career, to have been so much moved by some event, or speech, or action, that he gave vent, as it were, to his pent-up feelings in a short, ecstatic utterance, couched, for the most part, in one or two lines of poetry.
These ecstatic utterances and deep sayings are attributed to the Buddha himself, and accompanied by the prose framework.
These are really 550 of the folk-tales current in India when the canon was being formed, the only thing Buddhist about them being that the Buddha, in a previous birth, is identified in each case with the hero in the little story.
The story is the one of chief importance to the Buddhists - the story, namely, of how the Buddha won, under the Bo Tree, the victory over ignorance, and attained to the Sambodhi, "the higher wisdom," of Nirvana.