BUBASTIS, the Graecized name of the Egyptian goddess Ubasti, meaning "she of.
[the city] Bast" (B;s-t), a city better known by its later name, P-ubasti, "place of Ubasti"; thus the goddess derived her name Ubasti from her city (Bast), and in turn the city derived its name P-ubasti from that of the goddess; the Greeks, confusing the name of the city with that of the goddess, called the latter Bubastis, and the former also Bubastis (later Bubastos).
Bubastis, capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt, is now represented by a great mound of ruins called Tell Basta, near Zagazig, including the site of a large temple (described by Herodotus) strewn with blocks of granite.
In the great development of reverence for sacred animals which took place after the New Kingdom, the domestic cat was especially the animal of Bubastis, although it had also to serve for all the other feline goddesses, owing no doubt to the scarcity and intractability of its congeners.
Herodotus describes the festival of Bubastis, which was attended by thousands from all parts of Egypt and was a very riotous affair; it has its modern equivalent in the Moslem festival of the sheikh Said el Badawi at Tanta.
The tablet of Canopus shows that there were two festivals of Bubastis, the great and the lesser: perhaps the lesser festival was!held at Memphis, where the quarter called Ankhto contained a temple to this goddess.
Naville, Bubastis, and Festival Hall of Osorkon II.; Herodotus ii.
Khufu's work in the temple of Bubastis is proved by a surviving fragment, and he is figured slaying his enemy at Sinai before the god Thoth.
Two tablets at the mines of Wadi Maghara in the peninsula of Sinai, a granite block from Bubastis, and a beautiful ivory statuette found by Petrie in the temple at Abydos, are almost all that can be definitely assigned to Khufu outside the pyramid at Giza and its ruined accompaniments.
Busiris is here probably an earlier and less accurate Graecism than Osiris for the name of the Egyptian god Usiri, like Bubastis, Buto, for the goddesses Ubasti and Uto.
Busiris, Bubastis, Buto, more strictly represent Pusiri, Pubasti, Puto, cities sacred to these divinities.
Vast cemeteries of animals which belonged to the revered species have been discovered; more especially may be mentioned that of the cats at Bubastis, the remains of which, charred by some great fire, until recently filled numberless chambers of crude brick in the ruins at Zagazig.
Memphis, Tanis, Bubastis, Sais, Heracleopolis had at one time or another at least equal claims. The Ethiopian conquerors of Egypt made Thebes their Egyptian capital, but in 668 Assur-bani-pal sacked the city.
Of the ancient cities in the Delta there are remains, among others, of Sais, Iseum, Tanis, Bubastis, Onion, Sebennytus, Pithom, Pelusium, and of the Greek cities Naucratis and Daphnae.
At Bubastis, Tanis, Bebbeit (Iseum) and Heliopolis considerable stone remains have been discovered.
Thus at Bubastis, up ~re the cat-headed Bast (TJbasti) was worshipped, vast ceme- strt es of mummified cats have been found; and elsewhere or, ilar funerary cults were accorded to crocodiles, lizards, ibises Th(~many other animals.
Thus Ammon, originally the obscure local god of Thebes, was raised by the Theban monarchs of the XIIth and of the XVIIIth to XXIst Dynasties to a predominant position never equalled by any other divinity; and, by similar means, Suchos of the Fayum, IJbasti of Bubastis, and Neith of Sais, each enjoyed for a short space of time a consideration that no other cause would have secured to them.
Pasht, the cat, was the god of Bubastis; Apis, the bull, of Memphis; Hapi, the wolf, of Sioot; Ba, the goat, of Mendes.
Bubastis became a cat to avoid the wrath of Typhon.
Sheshonk (Shishak) I., the founder of the dynasty, c. 950 B.C., seems to have fixed his residence at Bubastis in the Delta, and his son married the daughter of the last king of the Tanite dynasty.
Built largely at Bubastis, and Osorkon II.
For information as to Ammon, Anubis, Apis, Bes, Bubastis, Buto, Isis and Thoth, reference must be made to the special articles on these gods.