His tomb, which is handsomely built of stone, is still to be seen in Brunei, and is constantly visited by Malays, who leave money and various articles on the tomb as offerings to his memory.
These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.
P p Y centre of the colony, the governor, who is also ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Brunei, Sarawak and governor of Labuan, has his principal residence here.
From the mainland of Borneo at the nearest point, and lies opposite to the northern end of the great Brunei Bay.
Politically Borneo is divided into four portions: (1) British North Borneo, the territory exploited and administered by the Chartered British North Borneo Company, to which a separate section of this article is devoted; (2) Brunei, a Malayan sultanate under British protection; (3) Sarawak, the large territory ruled by raja Brooke, and under British protection in so far as its foreign relations are concerned; and (4) Dutch Borneo, which comprises the remainder and by far the largest and most valuable portion of the island.
The most important of its rivers are the Sarawak, the Batang-Lupar, the Sarebas, the Rejang (navigable for more than loo m.), the Baram, the Limbang or Brunei river, and the Padas.
It has been suggested, but with very scant measure of probability, that the existence of elephants in Borneo, whose confinement to a single district is remarkable and unexplained, is due to importation; and the fact is on record that when Magellan's ships visited Brunei in 1522 tame elephants were in use at the court of the sultan of Brunei.
The traditions of the Malays and Dyaks seem to confirm the statements, and many of the leading families of Brunei in north-west Borneo claim to have Chinese blood in their veins, while the annals of Sulu record an extensive Chinese immigration about 1575.
In the 18th century there was a considerable Chinese population settled in Brunei, engaged for the most part in planting and exporting pepper, but the consistent oppression of the native rajas destroyed their industry and led eventually to the practical extirpation of the Chinese.
To this day, among the natives of the Malayan Archipelago, men speak of going to Pontianak, to Sambas or to Brunei, as the case may be, but make use of no term which recognizes that these localities are part of a single whole.
After Magellan's death, his comrades sailed from the Moluccas across the Celebes into the Sulu Sea, and were the first white men who are known to have visited Brunei on the north-west coast of Borneo, where they arrived in 1522.
The Molucca Islands being, at that time, the principal objective of European traders, and the route followed by - Magellan's ships being frequently used, Borneo was often touched at during the remainder of the 16th century, and trade relations with Brunei were successfully established by the Portuguese.
Thereafter the Spaniards maintained a fitful intercourse with Brunei, varied by not infrequent hostilities, and in 1645 a punitive expedition on a larger scale than heretofore was sent to chastise Brunei for persistent acts of piracy.
This mishap rendered a treaty, which had been concluded in 1774 with the sultan of Brunei, practically a dead letter, and by the end of the century British influence in Borneo was to all intents and purposes at an end.
On the rise of Singapore direct trade had been established with Sarawak and Brunei, and it became a matter of moment to British merchants that this traffic should be safe.
In 1847 the sultan of Brunei agreed to make no cession of territory to any nation or individual without the consent of Great Britain.
Since then more and more territory has been ceded by the sultans of Brunei to the raja of Sarawak and to British North Borneo, and to-day the merest remnant of his once extensive state is left within the jurisdiction of the sultan.
As has been seen, the British connexion with northern and north-western Borneo terminated with the 18th century, nor was it resumed until 1838, when Raja Brooke set out for Brunei and Sarawak.
The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei and his chiefs in addition to some which had already been obtained at the time of the formation of the company.
In March 1898 arrangements were made whereby the sultan of Brunei ceded to the company all his sovereign and territorial rights to the districts situated to the north of the Padas river which up to that time had been retained by him.
The seashore and the country bordering closely on the west coast are inhabited chiefly by Dusuns, by Kadayans, by Bajaus and Ilanuns - both Malayan tribes - and by Brunei Malays.
A railway of indifferent construction runs along the west coast from Jesselton to Weston on Brunei Bay, with a branch along the banks of the Padas to Tenom above the rapids.
There is also the Malay group, consisting of the Malay States in the Borneo peninsula and in Borneo, the protectorates of North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak.
BRUNEI, a state situated in the north-west of Borneo.
On the 2nd of January 1906 a treaty was made whereby the sultan of Brunei agreed to hand over the general administration of his state to a British resident.
The bulk of the inhabitants, who consist of Malays, Kadayans, Orang Bukits and a few Muruts, are to be found in and about the capital - also called Brunei - the population of the city being estimated at about 15,000, and the population of the whole territory being about 25,000.
Though there are practically no exports and imports, there is a certain amount of inland commerce, the Brunei Malay usually earning a living by trading with the interior tribes of Sarawak and British North Borneo.
Some of them are skilled workers of brass, and the Brunei women make very beautiful cloth, interwoven and embroidered with gold thread.
Brunei, or, as it is called by the natives Bruni or Darul-Salam (city of peace), possesses a historic tablet of stone upon which, in A.H.
The first sultan of Brunei was Alak-berTata, who was probably of Bisaya stock, and governed the country before the introduction of Islam, in the 15th century.
Brunei, at this time, was a dependency of Majapahit (Java), and paid a yearly tribute of a jar of areca juice obtained from the young green nuts of the areca palm, and of no monetary value.
The Hindu kingdom of Menjapahit was destroyed by the Mahommedans in 1478, and Brunei is mentioned in the history of Java as one of the countries conquered by Adaya Mingrat, the general of Angka Wijaya.
Sultan Berkat built a mosque and enforced Mahommedan law, and with the assistance of the Chinese built the stone wall, which is still in existence between the islands of Kaya Orang and Chermin, by sinking forty junks filled with rock across the mouth of the Brunei river.
In the reign of Sultan Bulkeiah Magellan's squadron anchored off the mouth of Brunei river in August 1521, and Pigafetta makes mention of the splendid court and the imperial magnificence of the Borneo capital.
Sultan Bulkeiah was otherwise known as Nakoda Ragam; he was the greatest warrior of Brunei and made military expeditions to Java, Malacca, Luzon and all the coasts of Borneo.
The Spaniards captured Brunei in 1580, the reigning sultan and his court retiring to Suai in the Baram district.
The golden age of Brunei was nevertheless at an end, and there is little more of importance to record.
In the early part of the 9th century Brunei was but a resort for pirates and a market for the slave trade.
Sarawak was handed over to Raja Brooke, and, after the capture and temporary occupation of Brunei by Sir Thomas Cochrane, Labuan was ceded to the British empire.
Nowadays the political consequence of Brunei largely arises from the existence there of valuable seams of coal, leased to the Sarawak government.