His most famous speech was that made at the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883.
ALEXANDER JOHNSTON (1849-1889), American historian, was born in Brooklyn, New York, on the 29th of April 1849.
He studied at the Polytechnic institute of Brooklyn, graduated at Rutgers College in 1870, and was admitted to the bar in 1875 in New Brunswick, New Jersey, where he taught in the Rutgers College grammar school from 1876 to 1879.
By the year 1878 there were four parallel lines in the city of New York, and constructions of the same character had already been projected in Brooklyn and Chicago and, with certain modifications of details, in Berlin.
Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.
Side of the river, but in that year Ohio City, which was founded in 1807, later incorporated as the village of Brooklyn, and in 1836 chartered as a city (under the name Ohio City), was annexed.
Other annexations followed: East Cleveland in 1872, Newburg in 1873, West Cleveland and Brooklyn in 18 9 3, and Glenville and South Brooklyn in 1905.
SETH LOW (1850-), American administrator and educationist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, on the 18th of January 1850.
He studied in the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and in Columbia University, where he graduated in 1870.
In 1878 he organized, and became president of, the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities.
In1882-1886he was mayor of the city of Brooklyn, being twice elected on an independent ticket; and by his administration of his office he demonstrated that a rigid "merit" civil-service system was practicable - in September 1884 the first municipal civil-service rules in the United Service were adopted in Brooklyn.
His brother, Charles Washington Baird (1828-1887), a graduate of New York University (1848) and of the Union Theological Seminary (1852), and the minister in turn of a Dutch Reformed church at Brooklyn, New York, and of a Presbyterian church at Rye, New York, also was deeply interested in the history of the Huguenots, and published a scholarly work entitled The History of the Huguenot Emigration to America (2 vols., 1885), left unfinished at his death.
Children's magazines originated with the Young Misses' Magazine (1806) of Brooklyn; the New York St Nicholas (monthly) and the Boston Youth's Companion (weekly) are prominent juveniles.
Upon his resignation from Lane Theological Seminary he lived in Boston for a short time, devoting himself to literature; but he broke down, and the last ten years of his life were spent at the home of his son, Henry Ward Beecher, in Brooklyn, New York, where he died on the 10th of January 1863.
In 1872 he settled in Brooklyn, New York, where in1885-1889he was pastor of the Parkville church and where he died on the 28th of July 1895.
CHRISTADELPHIANS (X purrou t,S€X ot, " brothers of Christ "), sometimes also called Thomasites, a community founded in 1848 by John Thomas (1805-1871), who, after studying medicine in London, migrated to Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. There he at first joined the " Campbellites," but afterwards struck out independently, preaching largely upon the application of Hebrew prophecy and of the Book of Revelation to current and future events.
Other works include the Sheridan monument in Washington; " Mares of Diomedes " and " Ruskin " in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; statue of Lincoln, Newark, N.J.; statue of Henry Ward Beecher, Brooklyn; the Wyatt Memorial, Raleigh, N.C.; " The Flyer " at the university of Virginia; gargoyles for a Princeton dormitory; " Wonderment of Motherhood " and " Conception."
Ford, The Many-Sided Franklin (New York, 1899) and Franklin Bibliography (Brooklyn, 1889); E.
Naturally, therefore, a dense population, engaged mainly in manufacturing and commerce, has gathered around the shores of this harbour, the greatest number on Manhattan 'Island and the contiguous mainland in New York City, but large numbers also on western Long Island, in Brooklyn, on the smaller islands, and on the New Jersey side.
Columbia University and Cornell University (q.v.), are: Union University (1795, non-sectarian), at Schenectady; Hamilton College (1812, non-sectarian), at Clinton; Colgate University (1819, non-sectarian), at Hamilton; Hobart College (1822, non-sectarian), at Geneva: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1824, non-sectarian), at Troy; New York University (1832, non-sectarian), in New York City; Alfred University (1836, non-sectarian), at Alfred; Fordham University (1841, Roman Catholic), in New York City; College of St Francis Xavier (1847, Roman Catholic), in New York City; College of the City of New York (1849, city); University of Rochester (1850, Baptist), at Rochester; Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (1854, non-sectarian), at Brooklyn; Niagara University (1856, Roman Catholic), at Niagara Falls; St Lawrence University (1858, non-sectarian), at Canton; St Bonaventure's College (1859, Roman Catholic), at St Bonaventure; St Stephen's College (1860, Protestant Episcopal), at Annandale; Manhattan College (1863, Roman Catholic), at New York City; St John's College (1870, Roman Catholic), at Brooklyn; Canisius College (1870, Roman Catholic), at Buffalo; Syracuse University (1871, Methodist Episcopal), at Syracuse; Adelphi College (1896, non-sectarian), at Brooklyn; and Clarkson School of Technology (1896, non-sectarian), at Potsdam.
Howe, with a force of British and Loyalists vastly superior in equipment and numbers to Washington's untrained militia, landed in July on Staten Island and late in August defeated Washington at the battle of Long Island within the present limits of Brooklyn borough.
P. Johnston's Campaign of 1776 around New York and Brooklyn (Brooklyn, 1878) are thorough studies.
The Brooklyn bridge, begun in 1872, has a centre span of 15952 and side spans of 930 ft.
The Brooklyn approach being 971 ft., and the New York approach 15622 ft., the total length of the bridge is 5989 ft.
In the United States a similar system prevails in New York, Boston, Brooklyn, Chicago, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New Haven and many other large towns.
His left flank was thrown across the East river beyond the village of Brooklyn, while his front and right on the harbour and North or Hudson river were open to a combined naval and military attack.
On the 22nd of August he crossed the Narrows to the Long Island 20,000 on the 25th, and on the 27th surprised the Americans, driving them into their Brooklyn works and inflicting a loss of about 1400 men.
Washington skilfully evacuated his Brooklyn lines on the night of the 29th, and in a measure relieved the depression which the defeat had produced in his army.
Ford's privately printed Bibliotheca Chaunciana (Brooklyn, N.
Ford (ibid., 1898); Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States, Published during its Discussion by the People (Brooklyn, I888), edited by P. L.
From October 1858 to the outbreak of the Civil War, he was in charge of the Brooklyn Navy Yard, becoming a full captain in 1861.
In 1859 he removed to Syracuse, N.Y.; in 1862 to Philadelphia, where he was pastor of the Second Reformed Dutch Church; and in 1869 to the Central Presbyterian Church in Brooklyn, where a large building known as the Tabernacle was erected for him in 1870.
His books also have had large circulations; among them are The Almond Tree in Blossom (1870); Every Day Religion (1875); The Brooklyn Tabernacle (1884); From Manger to Throne (1895); and The Pathway of Life (1895).
In America Rawdon served at the battles of Bunker Hill, Brooklyn, White Plains, Monmouth and Camden, at the attacks on Forts Washington and Clinton, and at the siege of Charleston.
BROOKLYN, formerly a city of New York state, U.S.A., but since 1898 a borough of New York City, situated at the S.W.
Brooklyn is connected with Manhattan by three bridges across the East river - the lowest, known as the Brooklyn, opened in 1883; another, known as the Williamsburg or East River bridge, opened in 1903; and a third, the Manhattan, was opened in 1909.
Brooklyn is served directly by the Long Island railway; by about fifty regular coast-wise and transAtlantic steamship lines; and by elevated or surface car lines on a large number of its streets.
Subway lines, begun in 1904, connect Brooklyn with the subway system of Manhattan.
The surface of Brooklyn in the west section, from the lower course of the East river to Gravesend Bay, varies in elevation from a few inches to nearly 200 ft.
The principal business thoroughfare is Fulton Street, which begins at Fulton ferry nearly under the Brooklyn bridge, runs to City Hall Park, and thence across the north central section of the borough.
For a considerable portion of its inhabitants Brooklyn is only a place of residence, their business interests being in the borough of Manhattan; hence Brooklyn has been called the "city of homes" and the "dormitory of New York."
The oldest is that on Brooklyn (or Columbia) Heights, west of City Hall Park, rising abruptly from the river to a height of from 70 to ioo ft., and commanding a delightful view of the harbour.
Here are hotels, large apartment-houses, many private residences and a number of clubs, including the Brooklyn, the Crescent, the Hamilton, the Jefferson and the Germania.
One of the most attractive features of Brooklyn is Prospect Park, occupying about 516 acres of high ground in the west central part of the borough, on a site made memorable by the battle of Long Island.
South-east to Canarsie Beach Park (40 acres), on Jamaica Bay; and extensions of Eastern Parkway run north-east through Highland Park (55 acres), to Brooklyn Forest Park (535 acres, on the border of the borough of Queens), abounding in beautiful trees and delightful views.
Along the north-east border of the borough are Cypress Hills cemetery (400 acres), adjoining Brooklyn Forest Park, and the cemetery of the Evergreens (about 375 acres), adjoining Highland Park and partly in the borough of Queens.
The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences embraces twenty-six departments, of which those of music, philology and the fine arts have each more than l000 members; the total membership of all departments in 1906 was 5894.
The Packer Collegiate Institute, opened as the successor of the Brooklyn Female Academy, in 1854, and endowed by Mrs Harriet L.
Here, too, are the law school of St Lawrence University, the Long Island Hospital Medical College, with a training school for nurses, the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy and several schools of music. Brooklyn's public schools rank especially high; among them there is a commercial high school and a manual training high school.
Among the larger libraries of the borough are the Brooklyn public library, those of the Long Island Historical Society, on Brooklyn Heights, of Pratt Institute, and of the King's County Medical Society, and a good law library.
Brooklyn is well provided with charitable institutions, and has long been known as the "city of churches," probably from the famous clergymen who have lived there.
Among them were Henry Ward Beecher, pastor of Plymouth church (Congregational) from 1847 to 1887; Lyman Abbott, pastor of the same church from 1887 to 1898; Thomas De Witt Talmage, pastor of the Brooklyn Tabernacle (Presbyterian) from 1869 to 1894; Richard Salter Storrs (1821-1900), pastor of the church of the Pilgrims (Congregational) from 1846 to 1899; and Theodore L.
The borough of Brooklyn is one of the most important manufacturing centres in the United States, most of the factories being located along or near the East river north of the Brooklyn bridge.
Brooklyn is also an important place for the milling of coffee and spices (the 1905 product was valued at $15,274,092), the building of small boats, and the manufacture of foundry and machine shop products, malt liquors, barrels, shoes, chemicals, paints, cordage, twine, and hosiery and other knitted goods.
The first settlement within the present limits of Brooklyn was made in 1636, when some Dutch farmers took up their residence along the shore of Gowanus Bay.
Flatbush was for a few years immediately preceding 1675 the largest; but Brooklyn was the first (1646) to have a township organization, and within a few years Wallabout, Gowanus, The Ferry, and Bedford - a new settlement to the south-east of Wallabout, established in 1662 - were included within its jurisdiction.
In 1654 the municipal privileges of Brooklyn as well as of two of the other towns were enlarged, but with Dutch rule there was general discontent, and when, in 1664, Colonel Richard Nicolls came to overthrow it and establish English rule these towns offered no resistance.
In 1816, when the population of the town of Brooklyn was about 4500, its most populous section was incorporated as a village; and in 1834, when its population had increased to 23,310, the whole town was incorporated as a' city.
Other annexations followed until the city of Brooklyn was conterminous with Kings county; and finally, on the 1st of January 1898, the city of Brooklyn became a borough of New York City.
Ostrander, A History of Brooklyn and Kings County (Brooklyn, 1894); H.
Howard (ed.), History of the City of Brooklyn (Brooklyn, 1893); and H.
Putnam, Brooklyn, in L.
The parents early moved to Brooklyn, where Whitman spent his youth.
First he was an errand boy in a lawyer's office; then he was employed in a printing office; next he became a country school teacher; he founded (1836) and till 1839 edited the Long Islander at Huntingdon, and later edited a daily paper in Brooklyn (the Eagle, 1846-1847) then he was found in New Orleans, on the editorial staff of ths.
Crescent (1848-1849); afterwards he passed his time carpentering, building and selling small houses in Brooklyn (1851-1854) in the meanwhile writing for the magazines and reviews and turning out several novels, and finally revolving in his mind the scheme of his Leaves of Grass.
She settled at Gravesend (now part of Brooklyn) having received from the Dutch authorities a guarantee of religious liberty.