He is also identified with the devil; thus, in accordance with old German tradition, he is dressed as a nobleman (ein edler Junker), all in red, with a little cape of stiff silk, a cock's feather in his hat, and a long pointed sword; at the witches' Sabbath on the Brocken he is hailed as "the knight with the horse's hoof," and Sybel in Auerbach's Keller is not too drunk not to notice that he limps.
The plateau is bounded on the north by the Harz, an isolated group of mountains, rich in minerals, with its highest elevation in the bare summit of the Brocken (3747 ft-).
The contrasts of heat and cold are furnished by the valley of the Rhine above Mainz, which has the greatest mean heat, the mildest winter and the highest summer temperature, and the lake plateau of East Prussia, where Arys on the Spirdingsee has a like winter temperature to the Brocken at 3200 ft.
M., and includes the Brocken within its limits.
The chromatic rings seen encircling the "spectre of the Brocken" are similarly explained.
The Radau,a mountain stream, descending from the Brocken, waters the valley and adds much to its picturesque charm.
The Brocken group, which divides the Upper and Lower Harz, is generally regarded as belonging to the first.
The highest summits of the Upper Harz are the Brocken (3747 ft.), the Heinrichshohe (3425 ft.), the Konigsberg (3376 ft.) and the Wurmberg (3176 ft.); of the Lower Harz, the Josephshohe in the Auerberg group and the Viktorhohe in the Ramberg, each 1887 ft.
Of these the Brocken (q.v.) is celebrated for the legends connected with it, immortalized in Goethe's Faust.
Slates, schists, quartzites and limestones form the greater part of the hills, but the Brocken and Victorshohe are masses of intrusive granite, and diabases and diabase tuffs are interstratified with the sedimentary deposits.
In 1895 an observatory was opened on the top of the Brocken, and the results of the first five years (1896-1900) showed a July mean of 50 Fahr., a February mean of 24.7°, and a yearly mean of 36.6°.
Some of these, and other places not named, add to their natural attractions the advantage of mineral springs and baths, pine-needle baths, whey cures, &c. The Harz is penetrated by several railways, among them a rack-railway up the Brocken, opened in 1898.
Between the forests of these stretch numerous peat-mosses, which contain in their spongy reservoirs the sources of many small streams. On the Brocken are found one or two arctic and several alpine, plants.
The major part belongs to the great North-German plain, but the western and south-western districts include parts of the Harz, with the Brocken, its highest summit, and the Thuringian Forest.