The book's ancient pages were so brittle, he feared they would crumble before he finished.
These are cementite, a definite iron carbide, Fe 3 C, harder than glass and nearly as brittle, but probably very strong under gradually and axially applied stress; and ferrite, pure or nearly pure metallic a-iron, soft, weak, with high electric conductivity, and in general like copper except in colour.
It is extremely magnetic and almost non-magnetic; as brittle as glass and almost as pliable and ductile as copper; extremely springy, and springless and dead; wonderfully strong, and 1 The word " iron " was in 0.
Initially fearing her to be brittle by her reaction to the world around her, A'Ran was more assured of her ability to withstand the changes in her life.
A bar of zinc, for instance, as obtained by casting, is very brittle; but when heated to 100° or 150° C. it becomes sufficiently plastic to be rolled into the thinnest sheet or to be drawn into wire.
Moreover, this same carburizing action of the fuel would at times go so far as to turn part of the metal into a true cast iron, so brittle that it could not be worked at all.
By the tension between the two, their alliance was brittle at best.
One of the most striking alterations of cell-walls is that termed carbonization, in which the substance gradually turns black, hard and brittle, as if charred - e.g.
The roof was the soundest part, though a good deal warped and made brittle by the sun.
He resisted the urge to burn them, in case the brittle papers held more secrets he needed.
Stantienite, a brittle, deep brownish-black resin, destitute of succinic acid.
At about 200° C., the metal becomes so brittle that it can be pounded in a mortar.
Beta (13) iron, an unmagnetic, intensely hard and brittle allotropic form of iron, though normal and stable only in the little triangle GHM, is yet a state through which the metal seems always to pass when the austenite of region 4 changes into the ferrite and cementite of regions 6 and 8.
"When I was in that room …" His grip on the railing tightened, and she stopped, afraid of pushing him through the brittle façade containing his emotions.
Sirian and Rissa glared at each other with animosity that bespoke a brittle relationship.
The coalitions, once so brittle as to break at the first strain, had now been hammered into solidity by his blows.
For its extraction from zircon the mineral is heated and quenched in water to render it brittle, and then reduced to a fine powder, which is fused with three to four parts of acid potassium fluoride in a platinum crucible.
Wood charcoal is a hard and brittle black substance, which retains the external structure of the wood from which it is made.
It forms a grey brittle mass, having a conchoidal fracture; it is very deliquescent, combining very energetically with water to form caustic potash.
Moreover, the coals which deoxidized the iron would inevitably carburize some lumps of it, here so far as to turn it into the brittle and relatively useless cast iron, there only far enough to convert it into steel, strong and very useful even in its unhardened state.
However this may be, very soon after man began to practise hot-forging he would inevitably learn that sudden cooling, by quenching in water, made a large proportion of his metal, his steel, extremely hard and brittle, because he would certainly try by this very quenching to avoid the inconvenience of having the hot metal about.
They may, for instance, be glandular or stinging, as in the common stinging nettle, where the top of the hair is very brittle, easily breaking off when touched.
Of the Characeae many are so exceedingly brittle that it is best to float them out like sea-weeds, except the prickly species, which may be carefully laid out on bibulous paper, and when dry fastened on sheets of white paper by means of gummed strips.
Rubber slowly absorbs oxygen when exposed to air and light, the absorption of oxygen being accompanied by a gradual change in the characteristic properties of rubber, and ultimately to the production of a hard, inelastic, brittle substance containing oxygen.
By whichever way treated, the tobaccoleaf after curing is brittle and cannot be handled without crumbling to powder.
If zinc be cast into a mould at a red heat, the ingot produced is laminar and brittle; if cast at just the fusing-point, it is granular and sufficiently ductile to be rolled into sheet at the ordinary temperature.
At temperatures below o° C. it is pretty hard and brittle; at the ordinary temperature it is so soft that it can be kneaded between the fingers and cut with a blunt knife.
The fact that a comparatively brittle material like concrete can be subjected not only to heavy loads but also to the jar and vibration from the blows of a heavy pile ram makes it appear as if its nature and properties had been changed by the steel reinforcement.
It is not brittle like porcelain and cast iron, not poisonous like lead-glazed earthenware and untinned copper, needs no enamel to chip off, does not rust and wear out like cheap tin-plate, and weighs but a fraction of other substances.
It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
Aluminium, iron, platinum and many other metals may thus take up so much carbon as to become brittle and unforgeable.
Gold and Zinc.-When present in small quantities zinc renders gold TABLE II.-Gold brittle, but it may be added to gold in larger quantities without destroying the ductility of the precious metal; Peligot proved that a triple alloy of gold, copper and zinc, which contains 5.8% of the lastnamed, is perfectly ductile.
Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.
Aleppo galls (gallae halepenses) are brittle, hard, spherical bodies, in.
Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: Gedanite, or "brittle amber," closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower meltingpoint and containing no succinic acid.
The more brittle condition of the Latin papyri found at Herculaneum has been instanced as the evil result of this re-making of the material.
By the early Greek alchemists the metal was named Hermes, but at about the beginning of the 6th century, it was termed Zeusor Jupiter, and the symbol 2(assigned to it; it was also referred to as diabolus metallorum, on account of the brittle alloys which it formed.
Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.
Similarly, bell-metal is harder, more sonorous and more brittle than either of its components.
From all the preceding the tiny dik-diks (Madoqua) of NorthEast Africa differ by their hairy noses, expanded in some species into short trunks; while the widely spread klipspringer, Oreotragus saltator, with its several local races, is unfailingly distinguishable by its rounded blunt hoofs and thick, brittle, golden-flecked hair.
It is of a pale brown colour, transparent, brittle, and in consequence of its agreeable odour is used for fumigation and in perfumery.
The hair covering the body is long, coarse, and of a peculiarly brittle and pith-like character, breaking easily; it is generally of a greyish-brown colour, sometimes inclined to yellowish-red, and often variegated with lighter patches.
When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall.
The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.
Velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.
The metal is dimorphous: by cooling molten tin at ordinary air temperature tetragonal crystals are obtained, while by cooling at a temperature just below the melting point rhombic forms are produced, When exposed for a sufficient time to very low temperatures (to - 39° C. for 14 hours), tin becomes so brittle that it falls into a grey powder, termed the grey modification, under a pestle; it indeed sometimes crumbles into powder spontaneously.
The same metal, when heated to 205° C., becomes so brittle that it can be powdered in a mortar.
The faience is thick and clumsy, having soft, brittle and very light pale.
Ginseng of good quality generally occurs in hard, rather brittle, translucent pieces, about the size of the little finger, and varying in length from 2 to 4 in.
When present in other metals, even in very small quantity, bismuth renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.
Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white element of specific gravity 6.27.
The crystals look like antimony, and are brittle, and so hard as to scratch glass and rubies; their specific gravity is 4.25.
The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.
At ordinary temperatures tin proves fairly ductile under the hammer, and its ductility seems to increase as the temperature rises up to about 100° C. At some temperature near its fusing point it becomes brittle, and still more brittle from - 14° C. downwards.
Bright, glance or pitch coal is another brilliant variety, brittle, and breaking into regular fragments of a black colour and pitchy lustre.
The class of furnaces heated by electrically incandescent materials has been divided by Borchers into two groups: (I) those in which the substance is heated by contact form at least so much carbide as would suffice, when diffused through the metal, to render it brittle, practically restricts the use of such processes to the production of aluminium alloys.
The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.
A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.
Eleven parts of gold and i of cobalt form a brittle alloy of a dull yellow colour.