In the neighbourhood are brine springs and a spa (Wilhelmsbad).
Many brine springs also occur in a more or less saturated condition.
One difference between the manufacture of salt from rock-salt brine as carried on in Britain and on the Continent lies in the use in the latter case of closed or covered pans, except in the making of fine salt, whereas in Britain open ones are employed.
At times sodium sulphate is added to the brine, producing sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate by double decomposition with the magnesium chloride.
The principal occupation is the manufacture of the salt obtained from the brine springs or wyches, to which the town probably owes both its name and its origin.
The freezing is effected by circulating brine (calcium chloride solution) cooled to 5° F.
The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.
C'est par elle que notre philosophie, nos lettres et nos arts ont brine d'un si vif eclat; c'est par elle que notre influence morale s'est exercee en souveraine dans le monde.
In the long familiar Branchipus, Chirocephalus and Streptocephalus the males have frontal appendages, but these are wanting in the " brine-shrimp " Artemia, and the same want helps to distinguish Branchinecta (Verrill, 1869) from the old genus Branchipus.
Oil and gas are of importance in the Lower Carboniferous Pocono sandstone of West Virginia and in the Berea grit of Ohio, where brine also occurs.
In northern Russia and in Siberia sea water is concentrated by freezing, the ice which separates containing little salt; the brine is then boiled down when an impure sea salt is deposited.
Much salt is obtained from north Lancashire, as also from the brine pits of Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Yorkshire, Durham and the Isle of Man (Point of Ayre).
This is the brine which is raised at the various pumping stations in Northwich and elsewhere around, and which serves to produce white salt.
In the former case it is often difficult to obtain the brine at a density even approaching saturation, and chambers and galleries are sometimes excavated within the saliferous beds to increase the dissolving surface, and water let down fresh is pumped up as brine.
In 1771 Thomas Jefferson described a " burning spring " in the Kanawha Valley, and when wells were drilled for salt brine near Charleston petroleum and natural gas were found here before there was any drilling for oil in Pennsylvania.
Jn 1841 natural gas was found with salt brine in a well on the Kanawha, and was used as a fuel to evaporate the salt water.
Brine wells have been mentioned above; the salt industry is still carried on in Mason county, and in 1908 145,157 bbls.
Though this industry has lapsed, there are brine baths, much used in cases of rheumatism, gout and general debility, and the former private mansion of Shrewbridge Hall is converted into a hotel with a spa.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
69-79) the distinctive 2 " The soil of this marsh [east of Palmyra] is so impregnated with salt that a trench or pit sunk in it becomes filled in a short time with concentrated brine, the water of which evaporates in the intense sunshine and leaves an incrustation of excellent salt."
The artesian well system previously adopted for obtaining brine and water.
Either common salt or strong brine in measured quantity is added to the charge, and, the soap being insoluble in such salt solution, a separation of constituents takes place: the soap collects on the surface in an open granular condition, and the spent lye sinks to the bottom after it has been left for a short time to settle.
There are Royal Brine baths, supplied with water of extreme saltness, St Andrew's baths, and a private bath hospital.
Owing to the pumping of the brine for the salt-works there is a continual subsidence of the ground, detrimental to the buildings, and new houses are mostly built in the suburbs.
A Roman villa, with various relics, has been discovered here, but it is doubtful how far the Romans made use of the brine springs.
A brine spring (Soolquelle) at the foot of the neighbouring Domberg is said to have given name to the town.
Reichenhall is the centre of the four chief Bavarian salt-works, which are connected with each other by brine conduits having an aggregate length of 60 m.
The surplus brine of Berchtesgaden is conducted to Reichenhall, and thence, in increased volume, to Traunstein and Rosenheim, which possess larger supplies of timber for use as fuel in the process of boiling.
The brine springs of Reichenhall are mentioned in a document of the 8th century and were perhaps known to the Romans; but almost all trace of antiquity of the town was destroyed by a conflagration in 1834.
The brine conduit to Traunstein dates from 1618.
Among other things Hales invented a "sea-gauge" for sounding, and processes for distilling fresh from sea water, for preserving corn from weevils by fumigation with brimstone, and for salting animals whole by passing brine into their arteries.
The mineral occurs generally in lenticular deposits, which may reach a thickness of more than loo ft.; but it is mined only to a limited extent, most of the salt being obtained from brine springs and wells which derive their saline character from deposits of salts.
Although brine springs have been known to exist in both these counties ever since the Roman occupation, and salt had been made there from time immemorial, it was not till 1670 that rock-salt about 30 yds.
In Cheshire the surface-water trickling through the overlying strata dissolves the salt, which is subsequently pumped as brine, but at Middlesbrough the great depth and impermeability of the strata precludes this, so another method has been resorted to.
Through this space the fresh surface water finds its way, and dissolving the salt below rises in the inner tube as brine, but only to such a level that the two columns bear to one another the relation of ten to twelve, this being the inverse ratio of the respective weights of saturated brine and fresh water.
For the remaining distance the brine is raised by a pump. The fresh water, however, as it descends rises to the surface of the salt, tending rather to dissolve its upper layers and extend superficially, so that after a time the superincumbent soil, being without support, falls in.
In cases where the atmospheric conditions are suitable the brine is run into large tanks and concentrated merely by solar heat, or it may be caused to trickle over faggots arranged under large open sheds called " graduation houses " (Gradirh¢user), whereby a more extensive surface of evaporation is obtained and the brine becomes rapidly concentrated.
The purer rock-salt is often simply ground for use, as at Wieliczka and elsewhere, but it is more frequently pumped as brine, produced either by artificial solution as at Middlesbrough and other places, or by natural means, as in Cheshire and Worcestershire.
Sometimes, to get rid of these impurities, the brine is treated in a large tub-`(bessoir) with lime; on settling it becomes clear and colourless, but the dissolved lime forms a skin on its surface in the pan, retards the evaporation and impedes the crystallization.
A slight degree of acidity seems more favourable to the crystallization of salt than alkalinity; thus it is a practice to add a certain amount of alum, 2 to 12 lb per pan of brine, especially when, as in fishery salt, fine crystals are required.
With the exception of sealskins, which are pickled in brine, all raw skins come to the various trade markets simply dried like this.
Salt is obtained on a large scale partly from brine springs and partly from mines, the principal centres being Halle, Berchtesgaden, Traunstein and Rosenheirn.