In August 1847 he was breveted lieutenantcolonel for gallant and meritorious conduct at Contreras and Churubusco.
He was promoted to be brigadiergeneral of volunteers in September 1861, and to be major-general of volunteers in July 1862, earned the brevet of lieutenant-colonel in the regular army at the capture of Nashville, Tennessee, that of colonel at Shiloh, and that of brigadier-general at Perryville, and in March 1865 was breveted major-general for his services during the war.
In September 1845 he went with his regiment to join the forces of General Taylor in Mexico; there he took part in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma and Monterey, and, after his transfer to General Scott's army, which he joined in March 1847, served at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Churubusco, Molino del Rey and at the storming of Chapultepec. He was breveted first lieutenant for gallantry at Molino del Rey and captain for gallantry at Chapultepec. In August 1848, after the close of the war, he married Julia T.
In September 1783 he was breveted major-general.
He served in the Black Hawk and Seminole wars, and left the army in 1837 to become a civil engineer, but a year afterwards he was reappointed to the army as first lieutenant, Topographical Engineers, and breveted captain for his conduct in the Seminole war.
On the 1st of July 1844 he was breveted, and on the 18th of June 1846 commissioned second lieutenant.
He took part in the later movements under Winfield Scott against the city of Mexico, and was breveted first lieutenant for "gallant and meritorious conduct."
He served in the Mexican War under Scott, and was breveted for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco and at Chapultepec. He became captain in 1852 and major in 1861.
In September 1864 he became colonel of the 127th United States Colored Infantry; in 1864-1865 was in command of the prison camp at Elmira, New York, and in March 1865 was breveted brigadier-general of volunteers.
In March 1865 he was breveted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry in the battle of Valverde (on the 21st of February 1862) and for distinguished services in New Mexico, and after the war resumed his position as Indian agent, which he held until his death at Fort Lyon, Colorado, on the 23rd of May 1868.
Wool in Chihuahua, and under General Winfield Scott in the southern campaign; he was breveted major-general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, where he was severely wounded, and he was again wounded at Chapultepec. In1849-1855he was a United States senator from Illinois; and in1858-1859was a senator from Minnesota.
He studied law at Cincinnati, Ohio, and served on the Federal side in the Civil War, becoming colonel in November 1862; he was mustered out in May 1864, and in March 1865 was breveted brigadier-general of volunteers.
He re-entered the army as a captain of mounted rifles in the Mexican War, served with distinction, and was breveted major for bravery at Contreras and Churubusco.
For this he was breveted major, and in May 1814 received a regular major's commission, but being reduced at the conclusion of the war to the rank of captain, temporarily left the service.
On the 25th of December 1837, after a difficult campaign, he inflicted a severe defeat upon the Indians at the battle of Okeechobee, and for this was breveted brigadier-general.
During the war he was breveted major-general (May 1846), and.
Breveted major-general in 1865, he remained in the army for a year as commander of the military district of Charleston, South Carolina.
He entered the Lutheran ministry, had charge of churches at New Germantown and Bedminster, New Jersey, and after 1772 of a church in Woodstock, Virginia, and there in 1775 raised the 8th Virginia (German) regiment, of which he was made colonel; in February 1 77 7 he became a brigadier-general in the Continental Army; and in September 1783 was breveted major-general.
In March 1865 he was breveted major-general U.S.A. "for gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Ezra Church and during the campaign against Atlanta," and in 1893 received a Congressional medal of honour for bravery at Fair Oaks.