Brest - - - 59,352 64,144 71,163
From Nantes to Brest 225
These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
Of the coast defences the principal are Toulon, Antibes, Rochefort, Lorient, Brest, Olron, La Rochelle, BelleIsle, Cherbourg,St-Malo, Havre, Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk A number of the older fortresses, dating for the most part from Louis XIV.s time, are still in existence, but are no longer of military importance.
The French coast is divided into five naval arrondissements, which have their headquarters at th.e five naval ports, of which Cherbourg, Brest, and Toulon.
The chief naval school is the Ecole navale at Brest, which is devoted to the training of officers; the age of admission is from fifteen to eighteen years, and pupils after completing their course pass a year on a frigate school.
Other schools are the school of naval medicine at Bordeaux with annexes at Toulon, Brest and Rochefort; schools of torpedoes and mines and of gunnery at Toulon, &c., &c. The coles dhydro graphic established at various ports are for theoretical training for the higher grades of the merchant service.
These two cables did not have a very long life, that of 1865 breaking down in 1877 and that of 1866 in 1872, but by the later of these dates four other cables had been laid across the Atlantic, including one from Brest to Duxbury, Mass.
In 1785 the French government carefully fitted out an expedition of discovery at Brest, which was placed under the command of Francois La Perouse, an accomplished and experienced officer.
In September 1791 Captain Antoine d'Entrecasteaux sailed from Brest with two vessels to seek for tidings.
The second duke, twice married, was father of at least eleven sons and six daughters, the sons including Edward the lord high admiral, killed in boarding Pregent's galleys at Brest, Edmund the knight marshal of the army at Flodden, and William the first Lord Howard of Effingham.
The chief first-class fortresses of Russia are Warsaw and Novogeorgievsk in Poland, and Brest-Litovsk and Kovno in Lithuania.
It contains the "Descrypcion of the towre of Virtue and Honour," an elegy on Sir Edward Howard, lord high admiral of England, who perished in the attack on the French fleet in the harbour of Brest in 1513.
This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.
Cyr, who had relieved Macdonald on his extreme left, had only 17,000 men left under arms against upwards of 40,000 Russians under Witgenstein; and to the south Tschitschagov's army, being no longer detained on the Turkish frontier, peace having been made, was marching to join Tormassov about Brest-Litewski with forces which would bring the total of the two well over ioo,000 men.
The French army was thus disposed almost in an equilateral triangle with sides of about 570 m., with 95,000 men at the apex at Moscow opposed to 120,000, 30,000 about Brest opposite ioo,000, and 17,000 about Drissa confronted by 40,000, whilst in the centre of the base at Smolensk lay Victor's corps, about 30,000.
A squadron of seven sail of the line, under Admiral Ganteaume, succeeded in slipping out of Brest, when a gale had driven the British blockading force off the coast.
He had a squadron at Brest, ships at L'Orient and Rochefort, some of his vessels had taken refuge at Ferrol on their way back from San Domingo when war broke out, one was at Cadiz, and he had a squadron at Toulon.
Amid all the variation in their details, and the apparent confusion introduced by Napoleon's habit of suggesting alternatives and discussing probabilities, and in spite of the preparations ostensibly made for an expedition to Ireland, which was to have sailed from Brest and to have carried 30,000 troops commanded by Augereau, the real purpose of Napoleon was neither altered nor concealed.
The blockade of Brest was so strictly maintained that Ganteaume was allowed no opportunity to get to sea.
Courland during the advance of the German army lost two-thirds of the population, which began to return after the Brest Litovsk Peace in 1918.
On Dec. 18 they went so far as to demand national representation of their own at the peace negotiations with Bolshevist Russia at Brest Litovsk.
Campardon, Le Tribunal revolutionnaire de Paris (Paris, 2nd ed., 2 vols., 1866); C. Berriat SaintPrix, La Justice revolutionnaire a Paris, Bordeaux, Brest, Lyon, Nantes, .
2 1918), their delegates at the peace negotiations of Brest Litovsk, in March 1918, on the contrary upheld against Trotsky the authority of the Lithuanian Council of State despite the fact that they had previously refused to regard it as the" legal representative of Lithuania."Their last argument rested upon this, that" Germany had recognized Lithuania's independence only on the condition that the conventions to be concluded, among them, of course, the form of constitution and the choice of a ruler, shall correspond to German interests "(Nordd.
He joined the "Bayonnaise" at Brest in July 1788 and served in the West and East Indies.
Where the French telegraph cable between Brest and New York passes from the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay to the depths of the Atlantic the angle of slope is.
On the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917 the Turks were able to recover ground; and under the Treaty of Brest Litovsk between Germany and Russia, signed on March 3 1918, Turkey's claims to the provinces she had lost to Russia in 1878 were recognized.
He had represented the Convention in the armies of Brest and of the Eastern Pyrenees in 1793, and in 1 795 he was sent to the armies of the Moselle and the Rhine.
At the end of August 1793, the republicans had three armies in the Vendee - the army of Rochelle, the army of Brest and the Mayengais; but their generals were either ciphers, like C. P. H.
Therefore a second and more powerful fleet was fitted out at Brest under the command of the Count d'Orvilliers.
Keppel, after a preliminary cruise in June, brought d'Orvilliers to action off Brest on the 27th of July.
The British government, not feeling strong enough to blockade Brest and the Spanish ports, was compelled to regulate its movements by those of its opponents.
D'Arzac de Ternay was sent from Brest with seven line-of-battle ships, and a convoy carrying 6000 French troops to act with the Americans..
The Ruthenians had united with Rome at Brest in 1596, forming a group of Uniates distinct from the Poles, who belonged to the Latin rite.
A branch line, parallel to this last, connects Skierniewice with Thorn and Bromberg; while a military railway connects the fortresses of Warsaw and Ivangorod with Brest-Litovsk, via.
Brest-Litovsk, at the western issue from the marshes of the Pripet, the towns of Dubno, Lutsk and Bobruisk constitute the second line of defence.
In 1903 the offices of the governor-general and of the court of appeal of French West Africa were transferred from St Louis to Dakar, which is also the seat of a bishop. In February 1905 a submarine cable was laid between Brest and Dakar, affording direct telegraphic communication between France and her West African colonies by an all French route.
His efforts resulted in their liberation; he went himself to Brest in search of them; and a civic feast was decreed on his behalf and theirs, which gave occasion for one of the few poems published during his life by Andre Chenier.
- This, though still the most important numerically of all the Uniat Churches, is but a fragment of the Church which proclaimed its union with Rome at the synod of Brest in Lithuania in 1596, a union which, after long and bitter resistance, was completed by the submission of the dioceses of Lemberg and Luzk in 1700 and 1702.
For its use, Colbert reconstructed the works and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Dieppe and Saint-Malo, and fortified, with some assistance from Vauban (who, however, belonged to the party of his rival Louvois), among other ports those of Calais, Dunkirk, Brest and Havre.
At the age of sixteen he entered the naval school at Brest, and after serving with distinction in various ships, was appointed in 1856 to the command of the "Bisson."
Towards the close of the Franco-Prussian War he made an admirable defence of Brest, and his organization of the French expedition to the island of St Paul to observe the transit of Venus in 1874 obtained his election to the Academy of Sciences and his promotion as commander of the Legion of Honour.
Appointed first to the "Orion" and then to the "Queen" in the Channel Fleet, under the command of Lord Howe, he took part in the three days' naval engagement with the Brest fleet, which terminated in a glorious victory on the 1st of June 1794.
Since that time the Russians have made many additions to the works, and the place now forms, with Warsaw, Ivangorod and Brest-Litovsk, the so-called Polish Quadrilateral.
BREST - LITOVSK (Polish Brzesc-Litevski; and in the Chron.
First mentioned in the beginning of the 11th century, Brest-Litovsk was in 1241 laid waste by the Mongols and was not rebuilt till 1275; its suburbs were burned by the Teutonic Knights in 1379; and in the end of the 15th century the whole town met a similar fate at the hands of the khan of the Crimea.
The Brest-Litovsk or King's canal (50 m.
The escape of a French squadron which entered the Mediterranean from Brest in May 1799 was mainly due to jarrings among the British naval commanders.
Keith followed the enemy to Brest on their retreat, but was unable to bring them to action.
On the 10th of September 1793 he obtained a vote of one hundred million francs for constructing vessels, and from September 1793 to January 1794 reorganized the military harbours of Brest and Cherbourg.
The Spaniards seized Calais in 1596; at another time they threatened England from Brest, and the invisible armada of 1599 created a greater panic than the invincible armada of 1588.
13 frigates and 15 ~tnal1er vessels set sail from Brest, ~ carrying an expeditionary force of some 13,000 men under General Hoche~ The British fleet, under Lord Bridport, was wintering at Spithead; and before it could put to sea the French had slipped past.
And the Black Prince, the only possessions of England in a liberated but ruined France were Bayonne, Bordeaux, Brest, Cherbourg and Calais.
Charles's generals avoided pitched battles, and contented themselves with defensive and guerrilla tactics, with the result that in 1380 only Bayonne, Bordeaux, Brest and Calais were still in English hands.
The victory defeated the proposed concentration of the French fleet in Brest to cover an invasion of England.