The whole subject is exhaustively treated by Father Joseph Braun in Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907).
BREISGAU, a district of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden.
The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
Of Za,hringen in 1218, his coheiresses brought parts of the Breisgau to the counts of Urach and Kyburg, while part went to the margraves of Baden.
At the close of the 13th century the Kyburg part of the Breisgau passed to the Habsburgs, who in 1368 acquired also the town and countship of Freiburg, which had been sold by the counts of Urach to the Freiburgers and given in pledge by them to the house of Austria in exchange for a loan of the purchase price, which they were unable to repay.
The male Urach line becoming extinct in 1457, an heiress carried what remained of their possessions in the Breisgau to the house of Baden.
In the struggle between France and Austria from the 17th century onwards the Breisgau frequently changed masters.
His successor Ferdinand took the title of duke of Modena-Breisgau, but on his death in 1805 the Breisgau was divided between Baden and Wurttemberg.
Jahrhundert (Munich, 1890); Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1882-1901); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopeidie (ed.
" Almucia"; Joseph Braun, Die liturgische Gewandung, p. 359, &c. (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907); also the bibliography to the article Vestments.
(Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1874); O.
Holder (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1882, &c.).
The vestment was a monument of careful and painstaking research, profusely illustrated.
There are two universities, the Protestant at Heidelberg and the Roman Catholic at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, and a celebrated technical college at Karlsruhe.
Changing sides in 1805 he fought for Napoleon, with the result that by the peace of Pressburg in that year he obtained the Breisgau and other territories at the expense of the Habsburgs.
This fortress fell on the 12th of November, and the troops of the coalition gained possession of an unbroken line from Amsterdam to the Breisgau, while Louis' German allies (Cologne and Munster), now isolated, had to make peace at once.
An army of South Germans in the Breisgau, after an unsuccessful attempt to invade Alsace, moved northward to the Neckar valley with the intention of uniting with Bournonville, who was moving up the Rhine to meet them.
Maine, "Minute on the Kathiawar States" (1864; printed in Life and Speeches, p. 320) and Early History of Institutions (1875); P. Laband, Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches (Freiburgim-Breisgau and Tubingen, 1876); R.
In 1490 he entered the order of Franciscan monks, and in 1495 began a wandering life, studying and then teaching and preaching in Freiburg-in-Breisgau, Paris, Cracow and Strassburg.
(1727-1803) saw his states transformed by the French into the Cispadine Republic, and, having refused the principality of Breisgau and Ortenau, offered him in compensation by the treaty of Campo Formio, died an exile at Treviso.
He selected Freiburg in the Breisgau, as a city which was still in the dominion of the emperor, and was free from religious dissension.
Braun, S.J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), pp. 1 492 47, and the bibliography to the article VESTMENTS.
1869); HergenrOther, Catholic Church and Christian State (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1872; Eng.
Freiburg im Breisgau and St Louis, 1908).
Abeling, Einleitung in das Nibelungenlied (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1909).
FREIBURG IM BREISGAU, an archiepiscopal see and city of Germany in the grand duchy of Baden, 12 m.
Of encyclopaedias may be mentioned the New SchaffHerzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge (New York, 1908 sqq.); the Catholic Encyclopaedia (New York, 1907 sqq.); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896 sqq.); Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon (2nd ed., Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1882-1901); G.
See Joseph Braun, S.J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), pp. 2 47-3 0 5.
J., Die liturgische Gewandung, pp. 21-56 (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), and bibliography to the article Vestments.
(Freiburg im Breisgau, 1895).
The most celebrated public libraries are those of Berlin (i,ooo,ooo volumes and 30,000 MSS.); Munich (1,000,000 volumes, 40,000 MSS.); Heidelberg (563,000 volumes, 8ooo MSS.); GÃ¶ttingen (503,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Strassburg (760,000 volumes); Dresden (500,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Hamburg (municipal library, 600,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.); Stuttgart (400,000 volumes, 3500 MSS.); Leipzig (universitylibrary, 500,000 volurries, 5000 MSS.); Wurzburg (350,000 volumes); TUbingen (340,000 volumes); Rostock (318,000 volumes); Breslau (university library, 300,000 volumes, 7000 MSS.); Freiburg-im-Breisgau (250,000 volumes); Bonn (265,000 volumes); and Konigsberg (230,000 volumes, I ioo MSS.).
So early as 1783 Johannes von Muller of Gottingen had called attention to the historical figures appearing in the Nibelungenlied, identifying Etzel as Attila, Dietrich of Bern as Theodoric of Verona, and the Burgundian kings Gunther, Giselher and Gernot as the Gundaharius, Gislaharius and Godomar of the Lex Burgundiorum; in 1820 Julius Leichtlen (Neuaufgefundenes Bruchstick des Nibelungenliedes, Freiburg-im-Breisgau) roundly declared that "the Nibelungenlied rests entirely on a historical foundation, and that any other attempt to explain it must fail."
But on the night of the 20th-21st of March, having donned the garments of a layman, with a cross-bow slung at his side, he succeeded in making his escape from Constance, accompanied only by a single servant, and took refuge first in the castle of Schaffhausen, then in that of Laufenburg, then at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, and finally at Brisach, whence he hoped to reach Alsace, and doubtless ultimately Avignon, under the protection of an escort sent by the duke of Burgundy.
Pursued it year after year: in 1644 at Freiburg im Breisgau, despite the death of Guflbriant at Rottweil; in 1645 at Nordlingen, despite the defeat of Marienthal; and in 1646 in Bavaria, despite the rebellion of the Weimar cavalry; to see it finally triumph at Zusmarshausen in May 1648.
280-264 B.C.), was described by Archimedes in his Arenarius, only to be set aside Astronomisches aus Babylon (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1889).
Schweitzer, Island; Land and Leute (Leipzig, 1885); Alexander Baumgartner, Island and die Faroer (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1889).
Von Schwarz, Turkestan (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1900); H.
J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907); also the bibliography to the article Vestments.
He was educated at Freiburg in the Breisgau, at Klingenau in Switzerland and at the Benedictine abbey of St Blasien in the Black Forest, where in 1737 he took the vows.
See Joseph Bader, Das ehemalige Kloster St Blasien and seine Gelehrtenakademie (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 5874), which contains a chronological list of Gerbert's works.
Schrors, Hinkmar, Erzbischof von Reims (Freiburgim-Breisgau, 1884).