Breda is the next town in importance to the capital.
Cooper was one of the twelve commissioners who went to Charles at Breda to invite him to return.
At Breda he enlisted as a volunteer, and the first and only pay which he accepted he kept as a curiosity through life.
At Leiden, Utrecht, Groningen, Franeker, Breda, Nimeguen, Harderwyk, Duisburg and Herborn, and at the Catholic university of Louvain, Cartesianism was warmly expounded and defended in seats of learning, of which many are now left desolate, and by adherents whose writings have for the most part long lost interest for any but the antiquary.
He withdrew (April 1567) first to his residence at Breda, and then to the ancestral seat of his family at Dillenburg in Nassau.
In the spring of 1575 conferences with a view to peace were held at Breda, and on their failure Orange, in the face of Spanish successes in Zeeland, was forced to seek foreign succour.
The fortress of Breda, which was once considered impregnable, has been dismantled, but the town is still protected by extensive lines of fortification and lies in the midst of a district which can be readily laid under water.
Since 1828 Breda has been the seat of a royal military academy for all arms of the service.
The industries of Breda comprise the 'manufacture of linen and woollen goods, carpets, hats, beer and musical instruments.
Breda was in the i i th century a direct fief of the Holy Roman Empire, its earliest known lord being Henry I.
Breda obtained municipal rights in 1252, but was first surrounded with walls in 1534 by Count Henry of Nassau, who also restored the old castle, originally built by John of Polanen in 1350.
Breda was captured by surprise by the Spaniards in 1581; but in 1590 it fell again into the hands of Maurice of Nassau, 68 picked men contriving to get into the town concealed under the turf in a peat-boat.
In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four months' siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to Holland by the treaty of Westphalia.
In 1813, a sally being made by the French garrison on an advanceguard of the Russians under Benckendorff, the citizens of Breda again made themselves masters of the town.
Breda was the residence, during his exile, of Charles II., who, by the declaration of Breda (1660), made known the conditions of his acceptance of the crown of England.
Breda also derives some celebrity from the various political congresses of which it has been the scene.
After the Restoration there began a persecution of Friends and other Nonconformists as such, notwithstanding the king's Declaration of Breda which had proclaimed liberty for tender consciences as long as no disturbance of the peace was caused.
De Ruyter remained cruising in the Channel till the peace of Breda was signed in July.
His great reputation and the influence of Sir William Boswell, the English resident, with the states-general procured his election in 1643 to the chair of mathematics in Amsterdam, whence he removed in 1646, on the invitation of the prince of Orange, to Breda, where he remained till 1652.
The French troops also occupied Breda and Bergen-op-Zoom.
Other considerable towns are Dordrecht, Maastricht, Leeuwarden, Zwolle, Delft, 's Hertogenbosch, Schiedam, Deventer, Breda, Apeldoorn, Helder, Enschede, Gouda, Zaandam, Kampen, Hilversum, Flushing, Amersfoort, Middelburg, Zutphen and Alkmaar.
The state first began to encourage the construction of these local light railways by means of subsidies in 1893, since when some of the most prominent lines have come into exist ence, such as Purmerend - Alkmaar (1898), Zutphen - Emmerich (1902), along the Dedemsyaart in Overysel (1902), from 's Hertogenbosch via Utrecht and Eindhoven to Turnhout in Belgium (1898), and especially those connecting the South Holland and Zeeland islands with the railway, namely, between Rotterdam and Numansdorp on the Hollandsch Diep (1898), and from Breda or Bergen-op-Zoom, via Steenbergen to St Philipsland, Zierikzee and Brouwershaven (1900).
Besides the prisons, which include one built on the cellular principle at Breda, the state supports three penal workhouses for drunkards and beggars.
In 1853 the Roman Catholic Church, which before had been a mission in the hands of papal legates and vicars, was raised into an independent ecclesiastical province with five dioceses, namely, the archbishopric of Utrecht, and the suffragan bishoprics of Haarlem, Breda, 's Hertogenbosch and Roermond, each with its own seminary.
The surprise of Breda b of 1591.
Deeply mortified by his failure to relieve Breda, which was blockaded by Spinola, Maurice fell seriously ill, and died on the 23rd of April 1625.
His failure to relieve Breda had hastened the death of Maurice.
The peace of Breda was signed (31st of July 1667) on terms on the whole favourable to the Dutch.
It was due to his exertions as an organizer and a diplomatist quite as much as to the brilliant seamanship of Admiral de Ruyter, that the terms of the treaty of peace signed at Breda (July 31, 1667), on the principle of uti possidetis, were so honourable to the United Provinces.
At Amsterdam and Breda) and Belgium preserve more faithfully the characteristics of earlier days.
But Montrose (January 1650) was sent by Charles to " search his death," as he said, in an expedition to the north of Scotland, while, in the absence of his stainless servant, Charles actually signed the treaty of Breda (1st of May).
In 1625 (the year of the siege of Breda in Holland) is the third great London plague with 35,417 deaths - though the year 1624 was remarkably exempt, and 1626 nearly so.
On the 1st of May he signed the first draft of a treaty at Breda with the latter, in which he accepted the Solemn League and Covenant, conceded the control of public and church affairs to the parliament and the kirk, and undertook to establish Presbyterianism in the three kingdoms. He also signed privately a paper repudiating Ormonde and the loyal Irish, and recalling the commissions granted to them.
He left Brussels for Breda, and issued in April 1660, together with the letters to the council, the officers of the army and the houses of parliament and the city, the declaration of an amnesty for all except those specially excluded afterwards by parliament, which referred to parliament the settlement of estates and promised a liberty to tender consciences in matters of religion not contrary to the peace of the kingdom.
The treaty of Breda with Holland (21st of July 1667) removed the danger, but not the ignominy, and Charles showed the real baseness of his character when he joined in the popular outcry against Clarendon, the upright and devoted adherent of his father and himself during twenty-five years of misfortune, and drove him into poverty and exile in his old age, recalling ominously Charles I.'s betrayal of Strafford.
Tournai, Maastricht, Breda, Bruges and Ghent opened their gates, and finally he laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp. The town was open to the sea, was strongly fortified, and was defended with resolute determination and courage by the citizens.
But after his mediation in the treaty of Breda (July 1667), when Hugues de Lionne, secretary of state for foreign affairs, had isolated Spain, he substituted soldiers for the jurists and cannon for diplomacy in the matter of the queens rights.
In Flanders the town of Breda was taken after a famous siege.