It has a station on the Cambrian line between Moat Lane and Brecon, and two others (high and low levels) at Builth Road about 14 m.
TALGARTH, a decayed market town in Breconshire, South Wales, situated on the Ennig near its junction with the Llynfi (a tributary of the Wye), with a station on the joint line of the Cambrian and Midland companies from Brecon to Three Cocks Junction (22 m.
Eastwards there is a station on the Brecon and Merthyr railway at Bedwas.
The Neath and Brecon railway has a terminus in the town.
A branch from the main line at Tyn-y-caeau connects with the Rhymney railway, the London & North-Western railway, and the Brecon & Merthyr railway.
BRECON, or Brecknock, a market town and municipal borough, the capital of Breconshire, Wales, 183 m.
The ecclesiastical parish of Brecon consists of the two civil parishes of St John the Evangelist and St Mary, both on the left bank of the Usk, while St David's ih Llanfaes is on the other side of the river, and was wholly outside the town walls.
There is only one line of railway, over which several companies, however, have running powers, so that the town may be reached by the Brecon & Merthyr railway from Merthyr, Cardiff and Newport, by the Cambrian from Builth Wells, or by the Midland from Hereford and Swansea respectively.
A canal running past Abergavenny connects Brecon with Merthyr.
Wyatt; the Guildhall; the barracks, which are the headquarters of two battalions of the South Wales Borderers; the county infirmary founded in 1832; and the prison (in Llanfaes) for the counties of Brecon and Radnor.
Brecon is favourably known as a fishing centre, and there is also boating on the Usk and the canal.
The name Brecknock is an anglicized form of Brycheiniog, the Welsh name of the territory of Brychan (whence the alternative form of Brecon), a Goidelic chieftain, who gained possession of the Usk valley in the 5th century.
By a statute of 1535 Brecon was made the county town of the new shire of Brecknock, and was granted the right of electing one burgess to represent it in parliament, a right which it retained till it was merged in the county representation in 1885.
A chancery and exchequer for the counties of Brecknock and Radnor were also established at Brecon Castle, and from 1542 till 1830 the great sessions, and since then the assizes, and at all times the quarter sessions for the county, have been held at Brecon.
Of Brecon, beautifully situated on the left bank of the Usk, which divides it from Llangattock.
The nearest railway stations are Govilon (5 m.) and Gilwern (4 m.) on the London & North-Western railway, but a mail and passenger motor service running between Abergavenny and Brecon passes through the town.
It is also served by the Brecon & Newport Canal, which passes through Llangattock about a mile distant.
Of the English examples a few have been carefully excavated, notably Gellygaer between Cardiff and Brecon, one of the most perfect specimens to be found anywhere in the Roman empire of a Roman fort dating from the end of the ist century A.D.; Hardknott, on a Cumberland moor overhanging Upper Eskdale; and Housesteads on Hadrian's wall.
19 a the interior was held by a system of roads and forts not yet well understood but discernible at such points as Caer-gai on Bala Lake, Castle Collen near Llandrindod Wells, the Gaer near Brecon, Merthyr and Gellygaer.
The Usk rises in the Carmarthenshire Van on the west, and flowing in a direction nearly due east through the centre of the county, collects the water from the range of the Beacons in the south, and from the Eppynt range in the north by means of numerous smaller streams, of which the Tarell and the Honddu (which join it at Brecon) are the most important, and it enters Monmouthshire near Abergavenny.
The remainder and greater part of the county is occupied chiefly by the gently inclined Old Red Sandstone; in the dissected plateau of the Black Mountains north of Crickhowell the lower marls and cornstones are laid open, while south of Brecon the conglomeratic upper beds form the escarpment and plateaus of the Beacons.
The Central Wales section of the London & North-Western railway from Craven Arms to Swansea crosses the north-west corner of the county, and is intersected at Builth Road by a branch of the Cambrian, which, running for the most part on the Radnorshire side of the Wye, follows that river from Rhayader to Three Cocks; the Midland railway from Hereford to Swansea runs through the centre of the county, effecting junctions at Three Cocks with the Cambrian, at Talyllyn with the Brecon & Merthyr railway (which connects the county with the industrial areas of East Glamorgan and West Monmouthshire), and at Capel Colbren with the Neath and Brecon line.
Brecon is also connected with Newport by means of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, which was completed in 1801 and is 35 m.
The only municipal borough is Brecon, which is the county town, and had in 1901 a population of 5741.
The borough of Brecon has a separate commission of the peace, but no separate court of quarter sessions.
There are 94 civil parishes, while the ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part within the county number 70, of which 67 are in the diocese of St David's and the archdeaconry of Brecon, the remaining 3 being in the diocese of Llandaff.
Besides an endowed grammar-school (Christ College) at Brecon, there are in the county four secondary schools, established under the Welsh Intermediate Education Act 1899, viz.
Separate schools for boys and girls at Brecon, and dual schools at Builth and Brynmawr.
Most of the county institutions are in the town of Brecon, but the joint asylum for the counties of Brecon and Radnor is at Talgarth.
Out of the present town of Brecon, with smaller stations on roads leading thereto at Y Gaer near Crickhowell, and at Capel Colbren in the direction of Neath.
Bernard himself initiated this policy by building a castle at Talgarth on the Upper Wye, but in 1091 he moved southwards, defeated the regulus of Brycheiniog, Bleddyn ab Maenarch, and his brother-in-law Rhys ap Tewdwr, the prince of south-west Wales, and with materials obtained from the Roman fort of Caer Bannau, built a castle at Brecon, which he made his caput baroniae.
The old spirit of independence flickered once again when Owen Glendower marched to Brecon in 1403.
Upon the attainder of Edward, duke of Buckingham, in 1521, the lordship of Brecon with its dependencies became vested in the crown.
In 1536 it was grouped with a whole series of petty lordships marcher and the lordship of Builth to form the county of Brecknock with Brecon as the county town, and the place for holding the county court.
The county returns one member to parliament, and has done so since 1536; the borough of Brecon, with the town of Llywel, had also a separate representative from the same date till 1885, when it became merged in the county.
SILURES, a powerful and warlike tribe in ancient Britain, occupying approximately the counties of Monmouth, Brecon and Glamorgan.
To S.E., and is itself adjacent to Aran-fawddy (2970 ft.), the highest point in the Cader Idris group. The system of Mid-Wales or Powys stretches from Cardigan Bay to the English border, and contains Plinlimmon (2462 ft.) in north Cardigan; Drygarn Fawr (2115 ft.) in north Brecon; and Radnor Forest (2163 ft.) in mid-Radnor.
The three combined ranges of the Black Mountains, the Brecknock Beacons and the Black Forest sweep across south Brecon from W.
To E., the chief elevations being the Carmarthen Van (2632 ft.), the Brecon Beacon (2862 ft.) and Pen-7-gader fawr (2660 ft.) near the English border.
The boundary between the counties of Radnor and Brecon before encountering English soil near Hay.
The Taff (40 m.), rising amongst the Brecon Beacons, enters the Bristol Channel at Cardiff.
Cardigan, in Welsh Aberteifi, from its situation near the mouth of the Teifi, and Brecon, in Welsh Aberhonddu, from its site near the confluence of the Usk and Honddu, are examples of corrupted Welsh names in common use - Ceredigion, Brychan - which possess in addition pure Celtic forms. In the third division, English place-names are tolerably frequent everywhere and predominate in the Marches and on the South Wales coast.
The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unirnprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small mountain sheep, the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton.
The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon & Abergavenny, all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire.
The diocese of St Davids (Tyddewi), the largest, oldest and poorest of the four Cambrian sees, consists of the counties of Pembroke, Carmarthen and Cardigan, almost the whole of Brecon, the greater part of Radnor, and west Glamorgan with Swansea and Gower.
The see of Llandaff comprises Monmouthshire, all Glamorganshire as far west as the Tawe, and some parishes in Brecon and Hereford.
But in 1199 the celebrated Gerald de Barri (Giraldus Cambrensis), archdeacon of Brecon and a member of the famous Norman baronial house of de Barri, and also through his grandmother Nesta a great-grandson of Prince Rhys ap Tudor of Deheubarth, was elected bishop by the chapter of St Davids.
The all-important Act of Union 1536 (27 Henry VIII.), converted the whole of the Marches of Wales into shire ground, and created five new counties: Denbigh, Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock, or Brecon and Monmouth.
The Brecon Beacons of Old Red Sandstone are the highest (2907 ft.), but the Black Mountain bears a number of picturesque summits carved out of Millstone Grit and Carboniferous Limestone, which rise frequently over 2000 ft.
This coal-field occupies practically the whole of Glamorgan and part of Monmouth, and its surface slopes from the Black Mountain and Brecon Beacons to the sea as a gently inclined plateau, scored by deep valleys draining south.