Bourquin, pp. 55 seq.) have led most scholars to the conclusion that no one system of 2nd-century gnosticism is before the writer's mind.
The impossibility of placing them within the period of Acts is best known by Hatch, Bourquin (pp. 10-25), Bertrand (23-47) and von Soden.
The Epp. of Paul written after he became a Prisoner (New York, 1887); Plummer, Expositor's Bible (1888); Bourquin, Etude critique sur les past.
Bourquin, " Brahmakarma, ou rites sacres des Brahmans," in the Annales du Musee Guimet (Paris, 1884, t.
De Wette, Mangold, Reuss, Bruckner, Pfleiderer, von Soden,McGiffert, S.Davidson, Bourquin, Clemen and Jalicher) conclude that the pastorals were written in this order (2 Tim., Titus, i Tim.).