But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an army to the kings support, which in 1746 obtained a signal victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza.
The Habsburgs and the Bourbons The decline of French influence at the close of the reign of Louis XIV.
Left the Habsburgs and the Spanish Bourbons without ~ serious rivals.
The Spanish Bourbons held Naples and Sicily, as well as the duchy of Parma.
Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrangements (1816-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca.
Intral Italy, that of the Bourbons and that of Garibaldi.
In 1814 he attached himself to the Bourbons, and under the Restoration was appointed prefect of Somme, deputy for Seine-Inferieure and finally deputy for Seine-et-Oise, in which capacity he was a leader of the Liberal opposition.
Like Alexandre, Charles joined the Bourbons, succeeding Alexandre as deputy in 1829.
A Russo-Turkish fleet wrested Corfu from the French; and the Neapolitan Bourbons, emboldened by the news of the battle of the Nile, began hostilities with France which preluded the war of the Second Coalition.
The Bourbons of Naples had broken their treaty engagements with Napoleon, though in this matter they were perhaps as much sinned against as sinning.
After Austerlitz the conqueror fulminated against them, and sent southwards a strong column which compelled an Anglo-Russian force to sail away and brought about the flight of the Bourbons to Sicily (February 1806).
The situation was such as to tempt Napoleon on to an undertaking on which he had probably set his heart in the autumn of 1806, that of dethroning the Spanish Bourbons and of replacing them by a Bonaparte.
He is said to have remarked with an oath after Jena that he would make the Spanish Bourbons pay for their recent bellicose proclamation.
That the son of a Corsican notary should have been able to dispose of the Spanish Bourbons in this contemptuously easy way is one of the marvels of history.
As for France, she received the Bourbons, along with the old frontiers.
But the passports which the provisional government asked from Wellington were refused, and as the country was declaring for the Bourbons, his position soon became precarious.
Barely eight months after the restoration of the Bourbons in the autumn of 1875, Sagasta accepted the new state of things, and organized the Liberal dynastic party that confronted Canovas and the Conservatives for five years in the Cortes, until the Liberal leader used the influence of his military allies, Jovellar, Campos and others, to induce the king to ask him to form a Cabinet in 1881.
He fought in the army of the Bourbons, and later in the service of Austria, and died in 1825.
It was Peter's intention to marry his second daughter to the young French king Louis XV., but the pride of the Bourbons revolted against any such alliance.
As Gaston left only daughters, the viscounty passed at his death to the family of Foix, from whom it was transmitted through the houses of Grailly and Albret to the Bourbons, and they, in the person of Henry IV., king of Navarre, made it an apanage of the crown of France.
After the second restoration of the Bourbons he was exiled, and retired to Gratz where he occupied himself with literary work.
In 1814 he was a member of the provisional government by whom the Bourbons were recalled, and he attended the congress of Vienna, with Talleyrand, as minister plenipotentiary.
His family having been steady royalists, he entered the Gardes du corps at the return of the Bourbons, and during the Hundred Days he sought refuge first in Switzerland and then at Aix-en-Savoie, where he fell in love, with abundant results of the poetical kind.
Immediately upon the fall of the empire he declared himself a Royalist, and remained faithful to the Bourbons through the Hundred Days.
During the Hundred Days he was deputy for Herault in the chamber of representatives, and pronounced himself strongly against the return of the Bourbons, and for religious freedom.
He returned to Naples as captain on Massena's staff to fight the Bourbons and the Austrians in 1806, and subsequently went to Spain, where he followed Jerome Bonaparte in his retreat from Madrid.
Turned out of the army he became a civil engineer, but when the Bourbons were expelled a second time in 1806 and Joseph Bonaparte seized the throne of Naples, he was reinstated in his rank and served in the expedition against the brigands and rebels of Calabria.
During the revolution of 1848 against the Bourbons of Naples, Messina was bombarded for three consecutive days.
Garibaldi landed in Sicily in 1860, and Messina was the last city in the island taken from the Bourbons and made a part of united Italy under Victor Emmanuel.
Took up his abode at the hotel Talleyrand, and there occurred the conference wherein the statesman persuaded the victorious potentate that the return of the Bourbons was the only possible solution of the French problem, and that the principle of legitimacy alone would guarantee Europe against the aggrandizement of any one state or house.
Everything was brought into a state of uncertainty once more by the escape of Napoleon from Elba; but the events of the Hundred Days, in which Talleyrand had no share - he remained at Vienna until the Toth of June - brought in the Bourbons once more; and Talleyrand's plea for a magnanimous treatment of France under Louis XVIII.
His former relations with Talleyrand facilitated negotiations in Paris, and his great influence with the emperor was used in favour of the restoration of the Bourbons, and, after Waterloo, against the imposition of a ruinous war indemnity on France.
It had fallen to insignificance under the Bourbons, but since 1860 it has rapidly recovered.
Induced the Cortes to assist him in setting aside the Salic law, which the Bourbons had introduced since the beginning of the 18th century, and to re-establish the older succession law of Spain.
The existence of the so-called family compact by which the Bourbons of France and Spain bound themselves in an offensive alliance against England having been brought to light, Pitt urged that it should be met by an immediate declaration of war with Spain.
On the fall of the Directory by was made a senator and grand officer of the Legion of Honour; under the empire he became a count; and after the restoration of the Bourbons he took his seat as a peer.
Much more clearly than most men, he saw that the Bourbons were tottering to their fall, but how to prevent that fall he did not know.
On the second restoration of the Bourbons he was made councillor of state and secretary-general of the ministry of the interior.
The appointment of auditor to the council of state; and after the restoration of the Bourbons he became master of requests.
The Bourbons, on their return, dismissed him, though this treatment was not, compared to that meted out to Ney and others, excessively harsh.
On the restoration of the Bourbons he was summarily expelled from the Academy and from the archiepiscopal palace.
The Sicilians, unlike the Neapolitans, were thoroughly alienated from the Bourbons, whom they detested, and after the Garibaldi andfhe peace of Villafranca (July 18J9) Mazzini's emissaries, Thousand.