Several states are offering bounties to encourage its cultivation at home.
To pay bounties to soldiers in the Civil War a debt of $237,000 was contracted; but in 1870 only $90,000 of it was still outstanding.
Exceptions were made permitting the states to grant bounties on mining and (with the consent of the parliament) on exports of produce or manufactures - Western Australia being for a time partially exempted from the prohibition to impose import duties.
Important monopolies in the 18th maritime- century, and prohibitive import duties, as well as large tares and money bounties, in the 19th, contributed towards the pe t t y - In accumulation of immense private fortunes, but manu- pastries.
The Virginia Military District, between the Scioto and the Little Miami, reserved in 1784 for bounties to Virginia continental troops, was colonized in large measure by people from that state.
KO,unros); the comes sacrarum largitionum (count of the sacred bounties) was called at Constantinople b K6pns TWV aaKpt v XapyLTUJP Wv and the comes rerum privatarum 1 The exact significance of a title is difficult to reproduce in a foreign language.
The count of the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer or chancellor of the exchequer, for the public treasury and the imperial fisc had come to be identical; while the count of the private estates managed the imperial demesnes and the privy purse.
In the 5th century the "sacred bounties" corresponded to the aerarium of the early Empire, while the res privatae represented the fisc. The officers connected with the palace and the emperor's person included the count of the wardrobe (comes sacrae vestis), the count of the residence (comes domorum), and, most important of all, the comes domesticorum et sacri stabuli (graecized as Kowis Tou o-Ta,3Xov).
This, apart from the effect of the abolition of the sugar bounties, has been mainly the result of the increased employment of improved processes, carried on in improved apparatus, under skilled supervision, and with due regard to the importance of the chemical aspects of the work.
Under the bounty system, by which the protectionist countries of Europe stimulated the beet sugar industry by bounties on exports, the production of sugar in bounty-paying countries was encouraged and pushed far beyond the limits it could have reached without state aid.
The seventh article provided that bountied sugars (sucres primes) must be excluded from import into the territories of the signatory powers, by absolute prohibition of entry or by levying thereon a special duty in excess of the amount of the bounties, from which duty sugars coming from the contracting countries, and not bountyfed, must be free.
Bounties on certain minerals and metals are also given by some of the provinces.
Sugar-beet culture was tried in the years following 1890 with indifferent success until the introduction of bounties in 1901.
Between 1700 and 1777 the board of trustees expended nearly £850,000 on the promotion of the linen trade,] and in addition parliamentary bounties were paid on a considerable scale.
Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria, &c., to French vessels.
The minute plainly stated that it had become a question whether the continued enjoyment of advantages resulting from the importation of cheap bounty-fed sugar to some British industries did not involve the ruin of the British sugar-producing colonies; and that he was not prepared, as secretary of state for the colonies, to accept the responsibility of allowing matters to take their course and to acquiesce in the policy of non-intervention hitherto pursued in regard to the bounties without having satisfied himself as to what such a policy might entail as regarded both the colonies and the exchequer.
Mr Chamberlain concluded by asking whether the treasury would consent to sending a royal commission to the West Indies to inquire into the effect of the foreign sugar bounties on their principal industry.
Only one commissioner, however, denounced the bounties as the real cause of the utter breakdown of trade and of the grievous distress which all three had witnessed and fully acknowledged.
Of all the countries represented - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Spain, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia and Sweden - only one, namely France, was opposed to the complete suppression of all export bounties, direct or indirect; and Russia declined to discuss the question of her internal legislation, contending that her system did not amount to a bounty on exportation.
Russia, which gave bounties, was to be allowed to send into European markets not more than i,000,000 tons within the next five years, and Great Britain undertook to give certificates guaranteeing that sugar refined in the United Kingdom and exported had not been bounty-fed.
Under the stimulus of federal bounties, the production of pig iron and of steel, chiefly from imported ore, is rapidly increasing.
Bounties to encourage deep-sea fishing have been given by the federal government since 1882.
Sericulture was enjoined under penalties by statute; it was encouraged by bounties and rewards; and its prosecution was stimulated by learned essays and rhapsodical rhymes, of which this is a sample: " Where Wormes and Food doe naturally abound A gallant Silken Trade must there be found.
Onward till the period of the War of Independence bounties and other rewards for the rearing of worms and silk filature continued to be offered; and just when the war broke out Benjamin Franklin and others were engaged in nursing a filature into healthy life at Philadelphia.
With the resumption of peaceful enterprise, the stimulus of bounties was again applied - first by Connecticut in 1783; and such efforts have been continued sporadically down almost to the present day.
Bounties were last offered by the state of California in 1865-1866, but the state law was soon repealed, and an attempt to obtain state encouragement again in 1872 was defeated.
For exports, the price includes all charges within the territory, but drawbacks and bounties are not taken into account.
Scalping was sometimes adopted by the whites in their wars with the Redskins, and bounties have been offered for scalps several times in American history.
The competition of beet-sugar and the effect of bounties granted by various countries then began to tell on the production in Mauritius, the average crop for the seven years ending1900-1901being only 150,449 tons.
The McKinley Bill reduced revenues by its high and in many cases almost prohibitive duties; it put sugar on the free list with a discriminating duty of 30th of one cent a pound on sugar imported from countries giving a bounty for sugar exported, and it gave bounties to American sugar growers; it attempted to protect many "infant" industries such as the manufacture of tin-plate; under its provision for reciprocal trade agreements (a favourite project of James G.
The evidence of Ezra); and they, too, are rewarded by bounties and estates.
The king, again, needed the precious metals, not merely for bounties and rewards, but for important enterprises in which money payment was imperative.
" The motive of his giving bounties was rather to make men less uneasy to him than more easy to themselves."
A great deal has been said as to taxes termed "countervailing duties," which are called for in order to defend free trade itself against the protectionist bounties of foreign governments.
As to the claim for them that they will restore free trade conditions by nullifying the foreign bounties which have caused a disturbance of trade, this is really in the nature of a political reason.
Cotton Manufacture.-This was introduced into Ireland in 1 777 and under the protection of import duties and bounties increased so rapidly that in 1800 it gave employment to several thousand persons, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Belfast.
By bounties paid from surplus revenues amassed by tariff duties) - a famous report that has served ever since as a storehouse of arguments for a national protective policy; 7 a report favouring the establishment of a national bank, the argument being based on the doctrine of " implied powers " in the Constitution, and on the application that Congress may do anything that can be made, through the medium of money, to subserve the " general welfare " of the United States - doctrines that, through judicial interpretation, have revolutionized the Constitution; and, finally, a vast mass of detailed work by which order and efficiency were given to the national finances.
The increase in the tonnage of sailing vessels, which in other countries tends to decline, was due to the bounties voted by parliament to its merchant sailing fleet with the view of increasing the number of skilled seamen.
Within two years uniform customs duties were to be imposed; thereafter the parliament of the Commonwealth had exclusive power to impose customs and excise duties, or to grant bounties; and trade within the Commonwealth was to be absolutely free.
Eight years later, on the 1st of August 1896, the bounties offered by the governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary were approximately doubled, and France had a bill in preparation to increase hers correspondingly, although it was computed that they were even then equivalent to a grant of 3, 5s.
In October 1900 a conditional agreement for the reduction of the bounties was made in Paris between France, Germany and Austria-Hungary; in February 1901 the Belgian government proposed a new session of the Conference of 1898, and on the 16th of December following Brussels welcomed once more the delegates of all the powers, with the exception of Russia, to the eighth European Sugar Bounty Conference since that of Paris in 1862.
It was agreed " to suppress the direct and indirect bounties which might benefit the production or export of sugar, and not to establish bounties of this kind during the whole duration of the convention," which was to come into force on the 1st of September 1903, and to remain in force five years, and thenceforward from year to year, in case no state denounced it twelve months before the 1st of September in any year.
Avoirdupois) of the total net sugar bounties granted by European powers, according to the computation issued by the secretary of the United States treasury on the 12th of December 1898.
Bergne wrote to the foreign office from Brussels, reporting that a special session of the permanent commission, established under the sugar bounties convention, had opened on the 18th of November, and the principal matter for its consideration had been the application of Russia to become a party to the convention on special terms. A protocol admitting Russia to the sugar convention was signed at Brussels on the 19th of December 1907.
Meline, with high duties on agricultural products and raw materials as well as on manufactures, and with provisions for limited domestic bounties on silk, hemp and flax.
The ruthless determination of the superior leaders had been answered splendidly by the devotion of the troops, but the men of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg were mostly dead or wounded, and the recruits attracted by bounties or compelled by the "draft," which had at last been enforced in the North, proved far inferior soldiers to the gallant veterans whom they replaced.
Not the least of the anxieties of the colonial office during this period was the situation in the West Indies, where the canesugar industry was being steadily undermined by the European bounties given to exports of continental beet; and though the government restricted themselves to attempts at removing the bounties by negotiation and to measures for palliating the worst effects in the West Indies, Mr Chamberlain made no secret of his repudiation of the Cobden Club view that retaliation would be contrary to the doctrines of free trade, and he did his utmost to educate public opinion at home into understanding that the responsibilities of the mother country are not merely to be construed according to the selfish interests of a nation of consumers.
The British delegates wrote that it appeared that there were at that time but two methods of securing the suppression of the bounty system - an arrangement for limitation of the French and Russian bounties acceptable to the other sugar-producing states, in return for the total abolition of their bounties; or, a convention between a certain number of these states, providing for the total suppression of their bounties, and for the prohibition of entry into their territory of bounty-fed sugars, or countervailing duties prohibiting importation.