The Baltic, with the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, limits it on the N.W.; and two sinuous lines of land frontier separate it respectively from Sweden and Norway on the N.W.
Boundary is purely conventional: it crosses the peninsula of Kola from the Varanger Fjord to the Gulf of Bothnia; thence it runs to the Kurisches Haff in the southern Baltic, and thence to the mouth of the Danube, taking a great circular sweep to the W.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
In July they are pushed farther towards the N., and cross the Gulf of Bothnia, while another series of cyclones sweep across middle Russia, between 50° and 55° N.
From the widespreading roots string and ropes are manufactured in Lapland and Bothnia: the longer ones which run near the surface are selected, split through, and then boiled for some hours in a ley of wood-ashes and salt, which, dissolving out the resin, loosens the fibres and renders them easily separable, and ready for twisting into cordage.
In 1884 another English company took them up and completed a provisional railway from Malmberget to Lulea at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia (127 m.
SODERHAMN, a seaport of Sweden, in the district (tan) of Gefleborg, on an inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia, near the mouth of the Ljasne River, 183 m.
The level of the Gulf of Finland at Kronstadt and of the Gulf of Bothnia at Haparanda should similarly be 15 in.
The fresher enclosed seas include the Malay and the East Asiatic fringing seas with 30 to 34.5 per mille, the Gulf of St Lawrence with 30 to 31, the North Sea with 35 north of the Dogger Bank diminishing to 32 further south, and the Baltic, which freshens rapidly from between 25 to 31 in the Skagerrak to 7 or 8 eastward of Bornholm and to practically fresh water at the heads of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.
This may be either the Atlantic or the Gulf of Bothnia, according as the migration has commenced from the west or the east side of the central elevated plateau.
GEFLE, a seaport of Sweden on an inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia, chief town of the district (loin) of Gefleborg, 112 m.
ALAND ISLANDS, an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia, about 25 m.
The Aland Islands occupy a position of the greatest strategic importance, commanding as they do both the entrance to the port of Stockholm and the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia, through which the greater part of the trade of Sweden is carried on.
It is situated between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, and includes, moreover, a large.
In the north of the Gulf of Bothnia it is separated from Sweden and Norway by a broken line which takes the course of the valley of the Tornea river up to its sources, thus falling only 21 m.
- A line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.
Quite different is the character of the pentagonal space comprised between the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, Lake Ladoga, and the above-mentioned line traced through the lakes Ulea and Piellis.
A regular gentle slope leads from these hills to the Gulf of Bothnia (Osterbotten), forming vast prairie tracts in its lower parts.
The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo-elf, flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf; and Enare, belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean.
Two large rivers, Kemi and Tornea, enter the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, while the Ulea is now navigable throughout, owing to improvements in its channel.
In a century in the Gulf of Bothnia (Kvarken), from 1.4 to 2 ft.
By the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea, S.W.
The Dal river, which enters the Gulf of Bothnia near Gefle, is formed of the union of eastern and western branches (Oster Dal, Rivers of Vester Dal) not far from the town of Falun.
The coast of Sweden is not indented with so many or so deep fjords as that of Norway, nor do the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic and the Cattegat share in the peculiar Coast..
The sk,rgard of the Gulf of Bothnia is less fully developed than that of either the Baltic or the Cattegat.
Between these extremes the following actual average temperatures have been observed at certain stations from north' to south which are appropriately grouped for the purpose of comparison (heights above sea-level following each name) Jockmock (850 ft.), at the foot of the lake-chain on the Little Lule River-29.7°; and Haparanda (30 ft.), at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia-32.4°.
(39 ft.) at its mouth on the Gulf of Bothnia-34.9° Ostersund (1056 ft.) on Storsjo-35.2°; and Hernosand (49 ft.) on the Gulf of Bothnia-37.8°.
Navigation in the southern part of the Gulf of Bothnia is impeded from the end of November to the beginning of May, and in the north the gulf is covered with ice from November to the last half of May.
There are very numerous sawmills, using waterpower, steam and electricity; they are situated chiefly in the coast districts of the Gulf of Bothnia, from Gefle northwards, especially in the neighbourhood of Sundsvall and along the Angerman River, and in the neighbourhood of all the ports as far north as Lulea and Haparanda.
The deposits of iron ore are confined almost wholly to the extreme north of Norrland, and to a midland zone extending from the south of the Gulf of Bothnia to a point north of Lake Vener, which includes the Dannemora ore fields in the eastern part.
P. sylvestris is found, in greater or less abundance, from the hills of Finmark and the plains of Bothnia to the mountains of Spain and even the higher forest-slopes of Etna, while in longitude its range extends from the shores of the North Sea to Kamchatka.
The relations of the Lapps to their more powerful neighbours were complicated by the rivalry of the different Scandinavian kingdoms. After the disruption of the Calmar Union (1523) Sweden began to assert its rights with vigour, and in 1595 the treaty of Teusina between Sweden and Russia decreed "that the Lapps who dwell in the woods between eastern Bothnia and Varanger shall pay their dues to the king of Sweden."
Coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of the Kumo.
At the time of the last great subsidence, in glacial times, an arm of the sea extended across Sweden, submerging a great part of the littoral up to the Gulf of Bothnia, and including the Plies period the this of themnorthe and Baltic were s fg ficiently salt for oysters to flourish.
At this time the Gulf of Bothnia must have suffered greater depression than the Baltic proper, for the deposits of that epoch show a thickness of 100 metres (328 ft.) near Hernosand, but of only 25 metres (82 ft.) in the neighbourhood of Gotland.
Sieger has traced a series of isobasic lines, or lines of equal rate of elevation, for portions of Sweden and Finland; these indicate that the movement is now almost nil along the axial lines of the Baltic and the Gulf of Finland, but increases in amplitude northwards to the Gulf of Bothnia and in the direction of the main ridge of the massif of southern Sweden.
In the great basins and hollows from Rugen to the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland the upper layers of water, from 30 to 70 metres (16 to 38 fathoms) in thickness, have almost the same salinity throughout.
During very severe winters the Aland Sea is covered with thick ice available for traffic. The south part of the Gulf of Bothnia is covered with ice every winter along the coasts, but rarely, if ever, in its central part.
The northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia is frozen every winter.
North of the Aland Haf a ridge defines the southern edge of another depression, the Bothnian Sea, which in turn is separated from the most northerly division, the Gulf of Bothnia, by a ridge across the narrow Quarken or Kvarken Strait.
The capital of the government is Uleaborg, a seaport on the Gulf of Bothnia, now connected by railway with Helsingfors (49 8 m .); pop. (1904), 17,737.