Extremity only parted from Europe by the narrow straits of the Bosporus and Dardanelles.
In return for his assistance against the Scythians, the Greeks of the Cimmerian Bosporus and the Tauric Chersonese recognized his suzerainty.
They fought their duel out upon the Bosporus, off Sardinia, and in the Morea, with various success.
It contains a description of the southern coast of the Euxine from the Thracian Bosporus to the river Iris in Pontus.
These two divisions (which in spite of good treatment by Alexius began to commit excesses against the Greeks) united and crossed the Bosporus in August, Peter himself remaining in Constantinople.
By the beginning of May 10 9 7 the crusaders were crossing the Bosporus, and entering the dominions of Kilij Arslan.
The northern boundary is broken at Kertch by a strait entering into the Sea of Azov, and at the junction of the western and southern boundary is the Bosporus, which unites the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles.
Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.
Similar currents exist in the Bosporus to those of the Strait of Gibraltar.
By the Black Sea and the Bosporus, on the S.
By the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles, on the W.
(For maps of Asiatic Turkey, see Arabia; Armenia; Asia Minor; Palestine; Syria.) The possessions of the sultan in Europe now consist of a strip of territory stretching continuously across the Balkan Peninsula from the Bosporus to the Adriatic (29° to' to 19° 20' E.), and lying in the east mainly between 40° and 42° and in the west between 39 0 and 43° N.
In January 1902 the German group holding the Anatolian railway concession was granted a further concession for extending that railway from Konia, then its terminus, through the Taurus range and by way of the Euphrates, Nisibin, Mosul, the Tigris, Bagdad, Kerbela and Nejef to Basra, thus establishing railway communication between the Bosporus and the Persian Gulf.
After the victory of Nicopolis the siege of Constantinople was resumed, and the tower of Anatoli Hissar, on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, was now built.
The side of the .Bosporus the fort known as Rumeli Conqueror, Hissar, opposite that built by his grandfather Bay- 1451 1481.
Tradition avers that but forty days were needed for the completion of the work, six thousand men being employed night and day; guns and troops were hurriedly put in, and all navigation of the Bosporus was stopped.
With Sebastiani's encouragement the Porte resisted these demands; in one day a thousand guns were ranged along both sides of the Bosporus; and after a stay of ten days the British fleet was ordered to leave, and was considerably damaged by the fire of the forts while passing down.
The Treaty of Adrianople, by which the Danubian principalities were erected into practically independent states, the treaty rights of Russia in the navigation of the Bosporus Anapa and Poti in Asia ceded to the tsar, included also a settlement of the Greek question on the terms of the protocol of the 22nd of March.
Vertical interval British front /ine before authorities, an almost indispensable preliminary to the undertaking of warlike operations against Constantinople and the Bosporus by fighting forces coming from the west.
Even assuming that the fleet forced the Dardanelles, its communications would have to be safeguarded, and there would still be Constantinople and the Bosporus to be dealt with.
From the Black Sea the Russian naval forces bombarded the Bosporus defences on March 28; some fruitless operations were then carried out against the "Goeben " and " Breslau " (in the course of which the Turkish cruiser " Medjidieh " was sunk off Odessa (April 3), and on April 25, the day of the landing in the Peninsula, and on May 2, the Bosporus defences were again shelled.
A Russian army destined for the Bosporus, which had been gathered near Odessa, obliging the Porte to keep strong bodies of troops about Constantinople, had been called to Galicia, thus liberating several Turkish divisions for service at the Dardanelles.
The Russian expedition to the Bosporus, the convention of Kutaiah, and the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi (July 8, 1833) followed.
They beat down all opposition, wrested even Bosporus in the Crimea from the empire, and by the annihilation of the Ephthalites completed the ruin of the White Race of the plains from the Oxus to the Don.
From the Bosporus at HaidarPasha, and 389 from Smyrna by way of Afium-Kara-Hissar.
BYZANTIUM, an ancient Greek city on the shores of the Bosporus, occupying the most easterly of the seven hills on which modern Constantinople stands.
The exchequer being drained by the payment of 10,000 pieces of gold to buy off the Gauls who had invaded their territories about 279 B.C., and by the imposition of an annual tribute which was ultimately raised to 80 talents, they were compelled to exact a toll on all the ships which passed the Bosporus - a measure which the Rhodians resented and avenged by a war, wherein the Byzantines were defeated.
A little later (January 1657) he suppressed with ruthless severity a rising of the spahis; a certain Sheik Salim, leader of the fanatical mob of the capital, was drowned in the Bosporus; and the Greek Patriarch, who had written to the voivode of Wallachia to announce the approaching downfall of Islam, was hanged.
In the 5th century B.C. a Greek colony was founded here and remained independent for three centuries, when it became part of the kingdom of the Bosporus, and subsequently tributary to Rome.
The Strait of Dover, the Dardanelles and Bosporus; (3) by overflowing through the subsidence of the land, as in the straits of Bering, Torres and Formosa.
Through the Bosporus and Dardanelles at the entrance of the Black Sea, and through the sound and belts at the entrance of the Baltic, streams of fresh surface-water flow outwards to the salter Mediterranean and North Sea, while salter water enters in each case as an undercurrent.
This affair prompted the Ottoman Government to close the Darda nelles and Bosporus against all shipping, a course which caused immense loss and inconvenience to neutral Powers and produced such vigorous protest, particularly from Russia, that the straits were reopened in May.
The Dardanelles, Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, and the adjoining coastal areas, both in Europe and Asia, were demilitarized, and, to the extent necessary to ensure the freedom of the Straits, were placed under the control of an International Commission.
Of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine.
But the broad tract which projects towards the west as far as the shores of the Bosporus, though hilly and covered with forests - the Turkish Aghatch Denizi, or "The Ocean of Trees" - is not traversed by any mountain chain.
Gemlik); Chalcedon, at the entrance of the Bosporus, nearly opposite Constantinople; and Heraclea Pontica, on the Euxine, about 120 m.
Thus the Bosporus and Dardanelles under the Treaty of Paris of 1856 and by the Treaty of London 1871 were and remain closed to the passage of foreign armed vessels in time of war, though the Porte may permit their passage in time of peace in certain cases.
But they also penetrate to waters which may be termed inland, as the Bosporus, where they are known to the French-speaking part of the population as rimes damnees, it being held by the Turks that they are animated by condemned human souls.
They inhabit the Black Sea littoral from Varna to the Bosporus, the shores of the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean, the Aegean archipelago, the mainland of Greece, Epirus and the western islands as far north as Corfu.
On the death of Galerius, in May 311, he shared the entire empire with Maximinus, the Hellespont and the Thracian Bosporus being the dividing line.
The crisis was precipitated by the arrival on the 5th of April of a second division of the Russian fleet in the Bosporus, and of a Russian force of 6000 men, which landed on the Asiatic shore.
Devonian fossils have been found near the Bosporus and Carboniferous fossils at Balia Maden in Mysia.
(c) The Jews live chiefly on the Bosporus; and in Smyrna, Rhodes, Brusa and other western towns.
During the 3rd century, 278-277 B.C., certain Gallic tribes crossed the Bosporus and Hellespont, and established a Celtic power in central Asia Minor.
BOSPORUS, or BOSPHORUS (Gr.
The shores of the Bosporus are composed in the northern portion of different volcanic rocks, such as dolerite, granite and trachyte; but along the remaining course of the channel the prevailing formations are Devonian, consisting of sandstones, marls, quartzose conglomerates, and calcareous deposits of various kinds.
The Bosporus is under Turkish dominion, and by treaty of 1841, confirmed by the treaty of Berlin in 1878 and at other times, no ship of war other than Turkish may pass through the strait (or through the Dardanelles) without the countenance of the Porte.
Bosporus Cimmerius >>
After defending itself against the kingdom of Bosporus, and the native Scythians and Tauri, and even extending its power over the west coast of the peninsula, it was compelled to call in the aid of Mithradates VI.
The inscription of Darius on the Bosporus, Herod.
A great expedition under the command of Belisarius (in whose train was the historian Procopius) sailed from the Bosporus in June 533, and after touching at Catana in Sicily finally reached Africa in the beginning of September.
Archaic terracottas show it to have been inhabited in the 6th century B.C., but it is first heard of in history as resisting the attacks of Satyrus, ruler of the Cimmerian Bosporus, c. 390 B.C. His successor Leucon took it and made it a great port for shipping wheat to Greece, especially to Athens.
BOSPORUS CIMMERIUS, the ancient name for the Straits of Kerch or Yenikale, connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov; the Cimmerii were the ancient inhabitants.
This in ancient times seems to have formed a group of islands intersected by arms of the Hypanis or Kuban and various sounds now silted up. The whole district was dotted with Greek cities; on the west side, Panticapaeum (Kerch, q.v.), the chief of all, often itself called Bosporus, and Nymphaeum (Eltegen); on the east Phanagoria (Sennaja),Cepi,Hermonassa,Portus Sindicus, Gorgippia (Anapa).
Mithradates the Great entrusted the Bosporus Cimmerius to his son Machares, who, however, deserted to the Romans.
But even when driven out of his own kingdom by Pompey, Mithradates was strong enough to regain the Bosporus Cimmerius, and Machares slew himself.
341, materials fora connected history of the Bosporus Cimmerius come to an end.
In later times it seems in some sort to have been revived under Byzantine protection, and from time to time Byzantine officers built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which was constituted an archbishopric. They also held Ta Matarcha on the Asiatic side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and iith centuries became the seat of the Russian principality of Tmutarakan, which in its turn gave place to Tatar domination.
"Bosporus" (2) by C. G.
The two great aims he had in view were to prevent the establishment of Russia on the Bosporus and of France on the Nile, and he regarded the maintenance of the authority of the Porte as the chief barrier against both these aggressions.
From about 438 B.C. till the conquest of this region by Mithradates the Great, king of Pontus, about 100 B.C., the town and territory formed the kingdom of the Bosporus, ruled over by an independent dynasty.