13), and in 1480 Matthias recaptured Jajce, drove the Turks from Servia and erected two new military banates, Jajce and Srebernik, out of reconquered Bosnian territory.
On the Bosnian frontier, 15 m.
It is the centre of Bosnian education, containing the celebrated orphanage founded in 1869 by Miss Irby and Miss Mackenzie (afterwards Lady Sebright); the Scheriat-Schule, which derives its name from the Turkish code or scheri, and is maintained by the state for Moslem law-students; a gymnasium, a technical institute and a teachers' training-college.
In 1832 priests were forbidden to join them, and they had to apply to a deposed Bosnian metropolitan, who became their chief bishop, establishing his see in the monastery of Belokrinitsa in Bukovina.
The Austro-Russian entente came to an end in the beginning of 1908 owing to the Austrian project of connecting the Bosnian The "Reval The Austrian and Russian governments then drew up a further series of reforms known as the " Miirzsteg programme " (Oct.
Leechgathering is a characteristic Bosnian industry.
- Serajevo museum has a collection of the Bosnian flora, representing over 3000 species; among them, the rare.
"Bosnia begins with the forest," says a native proverb, "Herzegovina with the rock"; and this account is, broadly speaking, accurate, although the Bosnian Karst is as bare as that of Herzegovina.
One conspicuous feature of the Bosnian land-system is the Moslem Vakuf, or ecclesiastical property, consisting of estates dedicated to such charitable purposes as poor-relief, and the endowment of mosques, schools, hospitals, cemeteries and baths.
The period between the downfall of Roman power, late in the 5th century, and the growth of a Bosnian state, in the i ith, is poorer in antiquities.
Its converts nevertheless included many of the Bosnian nobles and the ban Kulin (1180-1204), whose reign was long proverbial for its prosperity, owing to the flourishing state of commerce and agriculture, and the extensive mining operations carried on by the Ragusans.
This event illustrates the three dominant characteristics of Bosnian history: the strength of the aristocracy; the corresponding weakness of the central authority, enhanced by the lack of any definite rule of inheritance; and the supreme influence of religion.
Hungary afforded him a brief respite; and in 1244 peace was concluded after a Bosnian campaign against Croatia.
With Ninoslav and various Bosnian ecclesiastics.'
A rising of the native magnates in 1322 resulted in the election of the Bogomil, Stephen Kotromanic, last and greatest of the Bosnian bans.
Others found shelter in Rome or Venice, and a large number settled in Ragusa, where they doubtless contributed to the remarkable literary development of the 16th and 17th centuries in which the use of the Bosnian dialect was a characteristic feature.
Judged by its influence on Bosnian politics, the Orthodox community was relatively unimportant at the Turkish conquest; and its subsequent growth is perhaps due to the official recognition of the Greek Church, as the representative of Christianity in Turkey.
A first Bosnian revolt was crushed in 1821; a second, due principally to the massacre of the janissaries, was quelled with much bloodshed in 1827.
Two years later came a most formidable outbreak; the sultan was denounced as false to Islam, and the Bosnian nobles gathered at Banjaluka, determined to march on Constantinople, and reconquer the Ottoman empire for the true faith.
The power of the Bosnian nobles, though shaken by their defeat, remained unbroken; and they resisted vigorously when their kapetanates were abolished in 1837; and again when a measure of equality before the law was conceded to the Christians in 1839.
He sent large bribes to influential persons at Constantinople; he aided the Turkish vali to repress the Christians, who had again revolted; and he supported the Bosnian nobles against reforms imposed by the vali.
Finally, in 1791, the treaty of Sistova again fixed the line of the Save and Una as the Bosnian frontier.
Sporadic insurrections had already broken out among the Bosnian Christians, and on the 1st of July 1875 the villagers of Nevesinje, which gives its name to a mountain neolithische Station von Butmir (Vienna 1895-1898); P. Ballif, Romische Strassen in Bosnien and Herzegovina (Vienna, 1893, &c.).
Russia having thus lost all the advantage gained by the peace of Karlowitz, Venice was next taken in hand, she having invaded the Bosnian frontier and incited the Montenegrins to revolt, besides capturing Turkish ships in the Mediterranean.
These are too numerous for detailed mention, but the following periods may be cited as the most interesting:1833-1841(Egyptian question);1849-1859(Crimean War and the events by which it was preceded and followed);1868-1869(Cretan insurrection);1875-1881(Bosnian and Herzegovinian insurrection, Russo-Turkish War, Berlin treaty and subsequent events);1885-1887(union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria);1889-1890(Cretan disturbances);1892-1899(Armenian and Cretan affairs);1902-1907(Macedonia);1908-1910(revolution and reform).
The official policy of Baron Kallay, for 20 years the administrator of Bosnia, was to taboo the name of Serb in the hope of creating a distinct " Bosnian " nationality.
Specially significant were the Memorandum addressed to the throne by 55 deputies of the Croat party of Right, in the Croatian, Bosnian, Dalmatian and Istrian Diets, and the political strike organized by the pupils of both sexes in almost all the middle schools of the Slavonic South.
This gave rise to sympathetic demonstrations in many Dalmatian and Bosnian towns, and to a series of interpellations and speeches by the Yugoslav and Czech deputies in the Parliament of Vienna.
From this group came the young Bosnian Serb students Princip, Cabrinovic, Graben and others, who murdered the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and the Duchess of Hohenberg at Sarajevo on June 28 1914, and thus lit a spark in the European powder magazine.
1915 at Banjaluka 151 prominent Bosnian Serbs - including 5 deputies and 20 orthodox priests - were put on trial for treason: and eventually 16 death sentences were passed, and terms of imprisonment totalling 858 years and a collective fine of 14 million crowns, were passed.
During the spring of 1915 the official organ at Sarajevo published list after list of Bosnian-Serb families who were thus declared to have forfeited their citizenship: and many thousands of women and children were driven across the Montenegrin frontier, often with only the clothes in which they stood.
But in the land question the Radical party was paralyzed by its Bosnian wing, which sided with the peasantry: and thus in Sept.
When then on July 21 Draskovic was murdered by a young Bosnian Communist, Parliament resolved on reprisals, and io days later passed by 190 to 54 laws of extraordinary severity for "the Defence of the State," terrorist agitation being made punishable by death, prolonged penal servitude or heavy fines.
Hence it is that the Nubians of this district, fairest of all the race, still claim Arab and Osmanli (Bosnian) descent.
No Bosnian city had greater prosperity or importance in the last half of the 18th century.
The Bosnian and the French are the best in colour.
He gradually departed from the Miirzsteg basis, and in January 1908 deliberately undermined the Austro-Russian agreement by obtaining from the sultan a concession for a railway from the Bosnian frontier through the sanjak of Novibazar to the Turkish terminus at Mitrovitza.
He at once attached himself to Kalman Tisza and remained faithful to his chief even after the Bosnian occupation had alienated so many of the supporters of the prime minister.
There must also be mentioned a Bosnian colony established at Caesarea Palestina, and the Circassian settlements placed in certain centres of Eastern Palestine by the Turkish government in order to keep a restraint on the Bedouin: the latter are also found in Galilee.
Krauss's left-hand division, the 55th (Bosnian), attacked the Vrsich-Vrata ridge, with the object of breaking through to the Isonzo and Caporetto.
Only one more attack was made in this sector and both Jager and Bosnian divisions had to be withdrawn and re-made.
Who had broken through at Plezzo, and the 94 th, from Krobatin's army, gained a little ground on the right, the Alpine troops of the 22nd capturing the summit of Monte Pertica, but the German Alpenkorps and the Austrian 50th, which had passed to Krauss from Stein's group, to replace the battered Bosnian and Jager divisions, made no headway against the salient of Solarolo and Spinoncia, or against the TombaMonfenera line.
The Yavor Brigade was temporarily held back facing the Serbo - Bosnian frontier.
It was ruled by the Bosnian king, Tvrtko, from 1390 to 1391; and in 1402 the famous and powerful Bosnian prince, Hrvoje or Harvoye, received the dukedom of Spalato from Ladislaus of Naples, the claimant to the Hungarian throne.
On the east of this river, three vast ranges, the Transylvanian Alps, the Balkans and Rhodope, encroach upon Servian soil; while on the west there is a chaos of mountain masses, outliers of the Bosnian and Albanian highlands.
The Save, which is also navigable, meets it at Belgrade, after being joined, at Racha, by the Drina, a Bosnian river, which rises on the Montenegrin border, 155 m.
Besides the small farms there is the zadruga, a form of community which appears to date from prehistoric times, and mainly survives along the Bosnian frontier, though tending to disappear everywhere and to be replaced by rural co-operation.
Of all the Servian dialects the most correct, richest and softest is the Herzegovinian or Zetta-Bosnian dialect.
It is joined by the Sotla, Krapina, Lonja, Ilova, Pakra and Oljana, which drain the central watershed; but its only large tributaries are the Una, a Bosnian stream, which springs in the Dinaric Alps, and skirts the Croatian border for 40 m.
The main line eastward from Agram passes through Brod, where it meets the Bosnian system, and on to Belgrade; throwing out two branch lines to Brcka and Samac in Bosnia, and several branches on the north, which traverse the central watershed, and cross the Hungarian frontier.at ZAkAny, Barcs, Esseg, Erdar and Peterwardein.
The Hungarian government left much liberty to the Croatian nobles, a turbulent and fanatical class, ever ready for civil war, rebellion or a campaign against the Bosnian heretics.
From 1322 to 1326 the Croatian nobles successfully withstood the armies of Hungary and Bosnia; from 1337 to 1340, instigated by the Vatican, they carried on a crusade against the Bosnian Bogomils; and in the Krajina (Turkish Croatia) hostilities were resumed at intervals until the Turkish conquest.