"BERNARD BOSANQUET (1848-), English philosopher, was born at Rock, near Alnwick, June 14 1848.
C. Bosanquet, British School Annual, viii.
Bosanquet; 7 (c) of vigorous effort to develop on fresh lines its underlying metaphysics in F.
Bosanquet, Logic (1888) and Essentials of Logic (1895).
Bosanquet, Psychology of the Moral Self (1897).
Bosanquet, Philosophical Theory of the State (1899), and Aspects of the Social Problem (1895); B.
Bosanquet, History of Aesthetic (1892), and Introd.
Willoughby, The Nature of the State (New York, 1896); Clauss, Die Lehre von den Staatsdienstbarkeiten (1894); Bosanquet, The Philosophical Theory of the State (1899); J.
A The possibility should not, however, be overlooked that the " stars of the months " were determined by their heliacal risings (see Bosanquet and Sayce on Babylonian astronomy, in Monthly Notices Roy.
Mansel and Jowett, Green and Caird, Bradley and Bosanquet arose in quick succession, the predecessors of a generation which aims at a new metaphysics.
C. Bosanquet, Roman Camp at Housesteads (Newcastle, 1904).
Bosanquet, Philosophy of Fine Art, Introduction (1886); W.
Venn, in his Symbolic Logic, proposes the four forms, xy = o, xy = o, xy>o, xy> o (where y means " not-y "), but only as alternative to the ordinary forms. Bradley says that " ` S-P is real' attributes S-P, directly or indirectly, to the ultimate reality," and agrees with Brentano that " ` is ' never stands for anything but ` exists ' "; while Bosanquet, who follows Bradley, goes so far as to define a categorical judgment as " that which affirms the existence of its subject, or, in other words, asserts a fact."
This view, which has influenced not only German but also English logicians, such as Venn, Bradley and Bosanquet, destroys the fabric of inference, and reduces scientific laws to mere hypotheses.
When Bosanquet says that in " Heat is a mode of motion " there is no reference to individual objects, but " a pure hypothetical form which absolutely neglects the existence of objects," he falls far short of expressing the nature of this scientific judgment, for in his Theory of Heat Clerk Maxwell describes it as " believing heat as it exists in a hot body to be in the form of kinetic energy."
When, again, Bradley and Bosanquet speak of the universal as if it always meant one ideal content referred to reality, they forget that in universal judgments of existence, such as " All men existing are mortal," we believe that every individually existing man dies his own death individually, though similarly to other men; and that we are thinking neither of ideas nor of reality; but of all existent individual men being individually but similarly determined.
The last supposed syllogism, namely, that having two affirmative premises and entailing an undistributed middle in the second figure, is accepted by Wundt under the title "Inference by Comparison" (Vergleichungsschluss), and is supposed by him to be useful for abstraction and subsidiary to induction, and by Bosanquet to be useful for analogy.
Wundt, who is again followed by Bosanquet, also supposes another syllogism in the third figure, under the title of "Inference by Connexion."
Hence the fallacy of those who, like Bosanquet, or like Paulsen in his Einleitung in die Philosophie, represent the realistic theory of inference as if it meant that knowledge starts from ideas and then infers that ideas are copies of things, and who then object, rightly enough, that we could not in that case compare the copy with the original, but only be able to infer from idea to idea.
Bosanquet, Logic (Oxford, 1888); The Essentials of Logic (London, 1895) F.
Bosanquet, Oxford, 1884); Grundziige der Logik (Diktate) (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1891, English translation by G.
It is deservedly, nevertheless, that Mill's applied logic has retained its pride of place amid what has been handed on, if in modified shape, by writers, e.g., Sigwart, and Professor Bosanquet, whose theory of knowledge is quite alien from his.
The detail, too, of the whole discussion is rich in suggestion, and subsequent logiciansUeberweg himself perhaps, Lotze certainly in his genetic scale of types of judgment and inference, Professor Bosanquet notably in his systematic development of " the morphology of knowledge," and others - have with reason exploited it.
1846) and Bernard Bosanquet 2 (1848) may be taken as typical exponents.
Bosanquet had the advantage that his logic was a work of a slightly later date.