The clays of the Rolling Downs formation overlie a series of sands and drifts, saturated with water under high pressure, which discharges at the surface as a flowing well, when a borehole pierces the impermeable cover.
The water-tight lining may be either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack screws as the borehole advances, or cast iron tubbing put together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to the old plan of building them up of segments.
The tubbing, which is considerably less in diameter than the borehole, is suspended by rods from the surface until a bed suitable for a foundation is reached, upon which a sliding length of tube, known as the moss box, bearing a shoulder, which is filled with dried moss, is placed.
The interval between the back of the tubbing and the sides of the borehole is then filled up with concrete, which on setting fixes the tubbing firmly in position.
When the coal has been under-cut for a sufficient length, the struts are withdrawn, and the overhanging mass is allowed to fall during the time that the workmen are out of the pit, or it may be brought down by driving wedges, or if it be of a compact character a blast in a borehole near the roof may be required.
The great thickness of the Gangetic alluvium is shown by a borehole at Calcutta which was carried to a depth of about 460 f t.
With the exception of the Red Marls forming the upper part of the Keuper, most of the New Red Sandstone is permeable, and some parts contain, when saturated, even more water than solid chalk; but, just as in the case of the chalk, a well or borehole in the sandstone yields very little water unless it strikes a fissure; hence, in New Red Sandstone, also, it is a common thing to form underground chambers or adits in search of additional fissures, and sometimes to sink many vertical boreholes with the same object in view.
When the water has been drawn down by pumping to a lower level its passage through the sandstone or chalk in the neighbourhood of the borehole is further resisted by the smaller length of borehole below the water; and there are many instances in which repeated lowering and increased pumping, both from wells and boreholes, have had the result of reducing the water available, after a few years, nearly to the original quantity.
The object attained by the air-lift is precisely the same as that attained by putting a pump some distance down a borehole; but instead of the head being reduced by means of the pump, it is reduced by mixing the water with air.
A pipe is passed down the borehole to the desired depth, and connected with air-compressors at the surface.
On such an island, in the centre of which a borehole is put down, brackish water may be reached far below the sea-level; the salt water forming a saucer, as it were, in which the fresh water lies.