It serves for the thatching of roofs, for a papermaking material, for ornamenting small surfaces as a "strawmosaic," for plaiting into door and table mats, mattresses, &c., and for weaving and plaiting into light baskets, artificial flowers, &c. These applications, however, are insignificant in comparison with the place occupied by straw as a raw material for the straw bonnets and hats worn by both sexes.
The plaits are sewed partly by hand and in a special sewing-machine, and the hats or bonnets are finished by stiffening with gelatin size and blocking into shape with the aid of heat and powerful pressure, according to the dictates of fashion.
Among the Kamchadales " the skin of the bear," says a traveller, forms their beds and their coverlets, bonnets for their heads, gloves for their hands and collars for their dogs.
South Framingham has large manufactories of paper tags, shoes, boilers, carriage wheels and leather board; formerly straw braid and bonnets were the principal manufactures.
Kilmarnock rose into importance in the 17th century by its production of striped woollen "Kilmarnock cowls" and broad blue bonnets, and afterwards acquired a great name for its Brussels, Turkey and Scottish carpets.
Lemoine, La Revolte du papier timbre ou des bonnets rouges en Bretagne en 1675 (1898); M.
The Kara-Kalpaks ("Black Bonnets") number about 104,000.