No one, not even Bonaparte, knows why.
Bonaparte and Professor Schlegel (1850), though it excludes many birds which an English writer would call "grosbeaks."
Liniers was viceroy on the arrival of the news of the crowning of Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, but as a Frenchman he was distrusted and was deposed by the adherents of Ferdinand VII.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
Driven from it in 1795, he was restored by Lucien Bonaparte, during whose time of office he served as secretary to the prefecture of the Upper Marne.
In 1808 Moratin was involved in the fall of Godoy, but in 1811 accepted the office of royal librarian under Joseph Bonaparte - a false step, which alienated from him all sympathy and compelled him to spend his last years in exile.
Bonaparte, with whom Tone had several interviews about this time, was much less disposed than Hoche had been to undertake in earnest an Irish expedition; and when the rebellion broke out in Ireland in 17 9 8 he had started for Egypt.
Was fain to sign terms of peace with Bonaparte at Tolentino, practically ceding the northern part of his states, known as the Legations.
Already the men of Reggio, Modena and Bologna had declared for a democratic policy, in which feudalism and clerical rule should have no place, and in which manhood suffrage, TahdeaCnIes~ together with other rights promised by Bonaparte Republin to the men of Milan in May 1796, should form the basis of a new order of things.
In, taking this step the Modenese and Romagnols had the encouragement of Bonaparte, despite the orders which the French directory sent to him in a contrary sense.
While the French directory saw in that province little more than a district which might be plundered and bargained for, Bonaparte, though by no means remiss in the exaction of gold and of artistic treasures, was laying the foundation of a friendly republic. During his sojourn at the castle of Montebello or Mombello, near I\Iilan, he commissioned several of the leading men of northern Italy to draw up a project of constitution and list of reforms for that province.
The constitution was modelled on that of the French directory, and, lest there should be a majority of clerical or Jacobinical deputies, the French Republic through its general, Bonaparte, nominated and appointed the first deputies and administrators of the new government.
A month later, under the pretence of stilling the civil strifes in the Valtelline, Bonaparte absorbed that Swiss district in the Cisalpine Republic, which thus included all the lands between Como and Verona on the north, and Rimini on the south.
Venice with its mainland End of the territories east of the Adige, inclusive of Istria and Dalmatia, went to the Habsburgs, while the Venetian isles of the Adriatic (the lonian Isles) and the Venetian fleet went to strengthen France for that eastern expedition on which Bonaparte had already set his heart.
Joseph Bonaparte, then occupaFrench envoy to the Vatican, encouraged democratic tion of manifestations; and one of them, at the close of 1797, Rome.
A British fleet under Nelson, sent into the Mediterranean in May 1798 primarily for their defence, checkmated the designs of Bonaparte in Egypt, and then, returning to Naples, encouraged that court to adopt a spirited policy.
Such was the position of affairs when Bonaparte returnec from Egypt and landed at Frjus.
By that triumph (due to Desaix and Kellermani rather than directly to him), Bonaparte consolidated his owi position in France and again laid Italy at his feet.
By complex and secret bargaining with the court of Madrid, Bonaparte procured the cession to France Napoleons of Louisiana, in North America, and Parma; while reorganthe duke of Parma (husband of an infanta of Spain) 1zat1o~ of was promoted by him to the duchy of Tuscany, now 1t8tV.
Piedmont was declared to be a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, r8oi); and on the 21st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation in the French Republic. About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands of Napoleon.
The little republic of Lucca, along with Piombino, was now awarded as a principality by the emperor to Elisa Bonaparte and her husband, Bacciocchi.
He sent Joseph Bonaparte and Massna southwards with a strong column, compelled the Anglo-Russian forces to evacuati Naples, and occupied the south of the peninsula with littli opposition except at the fortress of Gaeta.
On the 15th of February 18o6 Joseph Bonaparte entered Naples in triumph, hi~
This ambitious marshal, brother-in-law of Napoleon, foiled in his hope of gaining the crown of Spain, received that of Naples in the summer of 1808, Joseph Bonaparte being moved M
Elisa Bonaparte and her husband, Bacciocchi, rulers of Lucca and Piombino, became the heads of the administration in Tuscany, Elisa showing decided governing capacity.
For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.
In exchange for French assistance Piedmont would cede Savoy and perhaps Nice to France; and a marriage between Victor Emmanuels daughter Clothilde and Jerome Bonaparte, to which Napoleon attached great importance, although not made a definite condition, was also discussed.
Franchetti, Stone d Italia dat 1789 at 1799 (Milan, 1878); P. Gaffarel, Bonaparte ci les rpubliques italiennes (1796-1799) (Paris, 1895); R.
This tendency was already shown by Catherine when she created the League of Neutrals as an arm against the naval supremacy of England, and by Paul when he insisted that his peace negotiations with Bonaparte should be regarded as part of a general European pacification, in which he must be consulted.
Before this time, however, he had become earl of Aberdeen on his grandfather's death in 1801, and had travelled over a large part of the con iinent of Europe, meeting on his journeys Napoleon Bonaparte and other persons of distinction.
Napoleon Bonaparte (or Buonaparte, as he almost always spelt the name down the year 1796) was born at Ajaccio in Corsica on the i 5th of August 1769.
The father, Carlo Mariada Buonaparte (Charles Marie de Bonaparte), had resolved to call his three first sons by the names given by his great-grandfather to his sons, namely Joseph, Napoleon and Lucien.
He once remarked that the house of Bonaparte dated from the coup d'etat of Brumaire (November 1 799); but it is certain the de Buonapartes had received the title of nobility from the senate of the republic of Genoa which, during the 18th century, claimed to exercise sovereignty over Corsica.
It was in the midst of the strifes resulting from those claims that Napoleon Bonaparte saw the light in 1769.
As the result of an examination conducted in September 1785 by Laplace, Bonaparte was included among those who entered the army without going through an intermediate stage.
The plea of the last named on behalf of Corsica served to enlist the sympathy of Napoleon in his wider speculations, and so helped to bring about that mental transformation which merged Buonaparte the Corsican in Bonaparte the Jacobin and Napoleon the First Consul and Emperor.
The experiences of Bonaparte at Auxonne during his second stay in garrison were again depressing.
With him in his poorly furnished lodgings was Louis Bonaparte, the fourth surviving son, whom he carefully educated and for whom he predicted a brilliant future.
The reorganization of the artillery, which took place in the spring of 1791, brought Bonaparte to the rank of lieutenant in the regiment of Grenoble, then stationed at Valence.
Bonaparte took the oath on the 4th of July, but said later that the Assembly ought to have banished the king and proclaimed a regency for Louis XVII.
Thanks to the friendly intervention of the marechal du camp, baron Duteil, Bonaparte once more gained leave of absence for three months and reached Corsica in September 1791.
Paoli did little to help on the Bonapartes; and the advancement of Joseph Bonaparte was slow.
The death of Archdeacon Lucien Bonaparte, the recognized head of the family, having placed property at the disposal of the sons, they bought a house, which became the rendezvous of the democrats and of a band of volunteers whom they raised.
Further discords naturally arose between so masterful a lieutenant as Bonaparte and so autocratic a chief as Paoli.
The lack of trained officers was such as to render the employment and advancement of Bonaparte probable in the near future, and on the 30th of August, Servan, the minister for war, issued an order appointing him to be captain in his regiment and to receive arrears of pay.
The struggle which the constitutionalists and royalists of Marseilles made against the central government furnished Bonaparte with an occasion for writing his first important political pamphlet, entitled "Le Souper de Beaucaire."
But fortune now brought Bonaparte to blight those hopes.
Told off to serve in the army of Nice, he was detained by a special order of the commissioners of the Convention, Saliceti and Gasparin, who, hearing of the severe wound sustained by Dommartin, the commander of the artillery of the republican forces before Toulon, ordered Bonaparte to take his place.
Under their direction steady advance was made on the side which Bonaparte saw to be all important; a sortie of part of the British, Spanish and Neapolitan forces on the 30th of November was beaten back with loss, General O'Hara, their commander, being severely wounded and taken prisoner.
General du Teil, the younger, who took part in the siege, thus commented on Bonaparte's services: "I have no words in which to describe the merit of Bonaparte: much science, as much intelligence and too much bravery..
It is often assumed that the fortunes of Bonaparte were made at Toulon.
General du Teil, younger brother of the baron, had recently published a work, L' Usage de l'artillerie nouvelle; and it is now known that Bonaparte derived from this work and from those of Guibert and Bourcet that leading principle, concentration of effort against one point of the enemy's line, which he had advocated at Toulon and which he everywhere put in force in his campaigns.
On a slighter accusation than this many had perished; but an examination into the details of the mission of Bonaparte to Genoa and the new instructions which arrived from Carnot, availed to procure his release on the 10th of August.
But the decline in the energies of the central government at Paris and the appointment of Scherer as commander-in-chief of the army of Italy frustrated the plans of a vigorous offensive which Bonaparte continued to develop and advocate.
The vigour and tactical skill of Bonaparte contributed very largely to the success of the troops of the Convention over the Parisian malcontents on the famous day of 1 3 Vendemiaire (October 5th, 1795), when the defenders of the Convention, sweeping the quays and streets near the Tuilleries by artillery and musketry, soon paralysed the movement at its headquarters, the church of St Roch.
Thus when, after the crowning victory of Rivoli (14th of January 1797), Mantua surrendered and the Austrian rule in Italy for the time collapsed, Bonaparte was virtually the idol of the French nation, the master of the Directory and potentially the protector of the Holy See.
The bounds of the thus enlarged Cisalpine Republic were afterwards extended eastwards to the banks of the Adige by the terms of the treaty of Campo Formio; and in November 1797 Bonaparte added the formerly Swiss district of the Valtelline, north-east of Lake Como, to its territory.
Napoleon Bonaparte made a comment along these lines when he stated, "Man is entitled by birthright to a share of the Earth's produce sufficient to fill the needs of his existence."
The latter spared him, and this magnanimity Bonaparte subsequently repaid by death.
"Bonaparte has said so," remarked Prince Andrew with a sarcastic smile.
"And why the deuce are we going to fight Bonaparte?" remarked Shinshin.
Well, go on," he continued, returning to his hobby; "tell me how the Germans have taught you to fight Bonaparte by this new science you call 'strategy.'"
Well, Michael Ivanovich, our Bonaparte will be having a bad time of it.
Michael Ivanovich did not at all know when "you and I" had said such things about Bonaparte, but understanding that he was wanted as a peg on which to hang the prince's favorite topic, he looked inquiringly at the young prince, wondering what would follow.
And the conversation again turned on the war, on Bonaparte, and the generals and statesmen of the day.
You may laugh as much as you like, but all the same Bonaparte is a great general!
And the prince began explaining all the blunders which, according to him, Bonaparte had made in his campaigns and even in politics.
Not only occupied, but Bonaparte is at Schonbrunn, and the count, our dear Count Vrbna, goes to him for orders.
He lets them enter the tÃªte-de-pont. * They spin him a thousand gasconades, saying that the war is over, that the Emperor Francis is arranging a meeting with Bonaparte, that they desire to see Prince Auersperg, and so on.
Bonaparte himself, not trusting to his generals, moved with all the Guards to the field of battle, afraid of letting a ready victim escape, and Bagration's four thousand men merrily lighted campfires, dried and warmed themselves, cooked their porridge for the first time for three days, and not one of them knew or imagined what was in store for him.
"Bonaparte..." began Dolokhov, but the Frenchman interrupted him.
When the review was over, the newly arrived officers, and also Kutuzov's, collected in groups and began to talk about the awards, about the Austrians and their uniforms, about their lines, about Bonaparte, and how badly the latter would fare now, especially if the Essen corps arrived and Prussia took our side.
And do you know, my dear fellow, it seems to me that Bonaparte has decidedly lost bearings, you know that a letter was received from him today for the Emperor.
And the talkative Dolgorukov, turning now to Boris, now to Prince Andrew, told how Bonaparte wishing to test Markov, our ambassador, purposely dropped a handkerchief in front of him and stood looking at Markov, probably expecting Markov to pick it up for him, and how Markov immediately dropped his own beside it and picked it up without touching Bonaparte's.
But they heard him at the council of war and will hear him when he talks sense, but to temporize and wait for something now when Bonaparte fears nothing so much as a general battle is impossible.
Well, what is Bonaparte like?
Langeron, trying as virulently as possible to sting Weyrother's vanity as author of the military plan, argued that Bonaparte might easily attack instead of being attacked, and so render the whole of this plan perfectly worthless.
Bonaparte riding over the battlefield had given final orders to strengthen the batteries firing at the Augesd Dam and was looking at the killed and wounded left on the field.
Bonaparte, having come up at a gallop, stopped his horse.
Everywhere Bonaparte was anathematized and in Moscow nothing but the coming war was talked of.
Whatever the European sovereigns and commanders may do to countenance Bonaparte, and to cause me, and us in general, annoyance and mortification, our opinion of Bonaparte cannot alter.
Anna Pavlovna waited for him to go on, but as he seemed quite decided to say no more she began to tell of how at Potsdam the impious Bonaparte had stolen the sword of Frederick the Great.
Everywhere one heard curses on Bonaparte, "the enemy of mankind."
Yes, we have gained a victory over Bonaparte, just when I'm not serving.
So energetically do we pursue this aim that after crossing an unfordable river we burn the bridges to separate ourselves from our enemy, who at the moment is not Bonaparte but Buxhowden.
And I won't--not even if Bonaparte were here at Smolensk threatening Bald Hills--even then I wouldn't serve in the Russian army!
In the army, Bonaparte and the French were still regarded with mingled feelings of anger, contempt, and fear.
It struck him as a surprise that Alexander treated Bonaparte as an equal and that the latter was quite at ease with the Tsar, as if such relations with an Emperor were an everyday matter to him.
Bonaparte meanwhile began taking the glove off his small white hand, tore it in doing so, and threw it away.
If the Emperor pleases to recognize Bonaparte as Emperor and to conclude an alliance with him, it means that that is the right thing to do.
"Bonaparte treats Europe as a pirate does a captured vessel," said Count Rostopchin, repeating a phrase he had uttered several times before.
And of Bonaparte himself!
But when Napoleon asked him whether the Russians thought they would beat Bonaparte or not, Lavrushka screwed up his eyes and considered.
The interpreter translated these words without the last phrase, and Bonaparte smiled.
Bonaparte!... shouted Makar Alexeevich.
Who would have said that I should be a soldier and a captain of dragoons in the service of Bonaparte, as we used to call him?
Oh, they should let that fine fellow Bonaparte loose--he'd knock all this nonsense out of them!