But after the Armistice the unsatisfactory consequences of the peace negotiations, the heavy burden of suffering and loss caused by the war, and, above all, the intolerable internal policy of the Nitti Cabinet, which seemed prepared to hand the country over to the Bolshevist Socialists, brought about the return of Giolitti to the sphere of practical politics once more.
His policy during the occupation of the factories by the workmen organized by Bolshevist leaders in Sept.
On Dec. 18 they went so far as to demand national representation of their own at the peace negotiations with Bolshevist Russia at Brest Litovsk.
At the time of the Bolshevist rule in Hungary he was held prisoner as a hostage.
In their withdrawal, by a historic disregard of fair play, the Germans not merely refused to put at the disposal of the Lithuanian authorities the necessary means of defence, but under a military convention allowed the Bolshevist troops to march into evacuated zones at a mean distance of io kilometres.
Thus in lieu of the German appeared the Bolshevist menace.
Under these circumstances the Bolshevist advance reached its culminating point in May 1919, when the Soviet armies occupied Telshi and Shavli in the north and Olita in the south, thus threatening Kovno itself.
1919 fighting took place against the Bolshevist forces, which were successfully cleared out of the northern districts of the country, and until Dec. of that year against the so-called Bernonit troops, and sporadically all through 1920 against Polish units.
It had always been opposed to intervention in Russia, and insisted upon Russia desisting from any act that might be construed as intermeddling in the affairs of Czechoslovakia, in particular the pursuit of Bolshevist propaganda on Czechoslovak territory.
This crime was speedily followed by the Bolshevist chaos into which Munich was for a brief period plunged in April.
The great majority of the Bavarian Catholic Volkspartei, however, as well as Liberals of various shades, not to speak of the Royalists and reactionaries, wanted further guarantees against a recurrence of the Bolshevist terror.
The course taken by Bolshevist rule in Russia is narrated in the article Russia.