He would have liked to organize a big move against the Bolsheviks from the west, but such a move could not be made while the Entente Powers were resolved to keep Germany out, and while they sympathized with all the new organizations hostile to RussiaEsthonia, Latvia and Poland.
This produced a split in the ranks of Social Democracy between the Majority and Minority sections (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks).
At the third Congress in 1905 it led to the formation of two parties, the Bolsheviks meeting in London, and the Mensheviks in Geneva.
He said among other things: " The Jacobins of contemporary social democracy - the Bolsheviks - desire that the people, that is the proletarians and peasants, should settle the reckoning of Monarchy and Aristocracy in plebeian fashion - by ruthlessly annihilating the enemies of freedom."
The Bolsheviks, on their retiring from Wenden and Walk (Feb.
The Baltic volunteers were defeated by the Bolsheviks on Dec. 29 at Hintzenberg; and since the agreement made on Dec. 29 by Ulmanis with the German representative, the Socialist Winnig, did not attract a sufficient number of volunteers from Germany for the formation of an Iron Div., Riga fell on Jan.
By March 18 the Bolsheviks were thrown back over the Aa river.
The Bolsheviks, having killed a number of imprisoned " bourgeois," abandoned the city and the whole region after heavy losses.
But the Ulmanis Cabinet was not as yet the sole ruler of Latvia, the Bolsheviks holding Latgalia, and a Russo-German force under Bermondt-Avalov preparing an advance against the Bolsheviks across Latvian territory, plan adopted at a Riga conference on Aug.
18 the Bolsheviks made peace overtures, and Latvia was prepared to negotiate The Landeswehr, having been the chief instrument of freeing Latvia from the Reds, was reorganized (March 10 1920), and Col.
1919 the near approach of the Bolsheviks to Vilna caused the removal of the Government to Kovno.
Meanwhile the Polish Government's proposal for joint action against the Bolsheviks was rejected pending Lithuania's recognition as an independent state with Vilna for its capital.
The state of war with Soviet Russia, however, continued until the Peace Treaty of July 12 1920, whereunder the Lithuanian claim to Vilna and Grodno was recognized by the Bolsheviks and Lithuania received three million rubles in gold and 100,000 hectares of forest land for exploitation.
The initial victories of the Bolsheviks were followed by defeat and the victorious Poles, under the so-calle I" rebel "Gen.
This Manifesto has remained a kind of gospel for extreme Communists, and its pronouncements served as a guidance in the attempt of the Russian Bolsheviks (Russian for" Majority "party) to create a Communist republic in Russia.
Another element in the circle of ideas appropriated by the Bolsheviks was provided by the activity of Bakunin, the indefatigable Russian anarchist, who fought for world revolution in 1849 in Dresden and in 1870 in Lyons, and who passed 12 years of his life in prison and in exile.