On the eastern front the Bolshevik danger was also overcome.
And Ulmanis, under the pressure of a Bolshevik invasion and Bolshevik influence among the Letts, did not succeed in forming an anti-Bolshevik Lettish defence force, but on Dec. 7 consented to the creation of a Baltic Landeswehr.
One-quarter of the opposing Bolshevik army were Letts; Gen.
Ganetsky, obtained: (a) the disarmament of anti-Bolshevik forces in the territory of Latvia; and (b) favourable transit conditions.
A Bolshevik Government headed by Shtuchka was installed in Riga.
After the Russian collapse most of the survivors were gradually drafted through Murmansk, England and France to the Salonika front: one brigade was cut off by the Bolshevik Revolution and had to be evacuated through Siberia.
Ulmanis, confined on the steamer " Saratov " at Libau, had no fighting force at his disposal, and his attempts to call the population to arms were opposed as pro-Bolshevik manoeuvres.
During the winter of 1916-7 these volunteers experienced heav y losses; after the Russian revolution in March 1917, Bolshevik sympathies spread among these troops and large sections of the people, while on the other hand national aspirations united the Farmers' Political League (40,000 members), headed by K.
Effects of the World War.-The losses suffered by Latvia from evacuation, war, occupation, invasion and Bolshevik rule almost ruined her beyond hope; the official statistician Skuieneeks estimated in 1920 that it would take 50 years to bring her back to the pre-war level.