BOLIVAR, an inland state of Venezuela, lying S.
The capital is Ciudad Bolivar, formerly called Angostura, which is situated on the right bank of the Orinoco about 240 m.
Above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.
The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, the conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian statue of Bolivar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and other public offices.
The archbishop of Venezuela resides in Caracas and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the dioceses of Ciudad Bolivar, Calabozo, Barquisimeto, Merida and Maracaibo.
It was the birthplace of Simon Bolivar, and claims the distinction of being the first colony in South America to overthrow Spanish colonial authority.
The principal squares are Cathedral, Santa Ana, Bolivar and Lesseps.
Cotton is grown in every county of the state, but the large yields are in the Delta (Bolivar, Coaohma, Washington, Yazoo and Leflore counties), the greatest cotton-producing region of the world, and in Monroe, Lowndes and Noxubee counties on the Alabama border.
Of the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery in Mercer county, practically the whole E.
At Ciudad Bolivar, which is less sheltered from the trade-winds, the mean is 83° and the maximum 91.4°.
Under the constitution of the 27th of April 1904, the republic was divided into 13 states, 1 federal district and 5 territories, the names of which are as follows, those of the capital cities being given in brackets: Federal District (Caracas and La Asuncion); Aragua (La Victoria); Bermudez (Cumana); Bolivar (Ciudad Bolivar); Carabobo (Valencia); Falcon (Coro); Guarico (Calabozo); Lara (Barquisimeto); Merida (Merida); Miranda (Ocumare); Tachira (San Cristobal); Trujillo (Trujillo); Zamora (San Carlos); Zulia (Maracaibo), with the following territories: Amazonas (San Fernando de Atabapo); Colon (Gran Roque);; Cristobal Colon (Cristobal Colon); Delta-Amacuro (San Jose de Amacuro); Yaruari (Guacipati).
The division was as follows: Federal District (Caracas); Anzoategui (Barcelona); Apure (San Fernando de Apure); Aragua (La Victoria); Bolivar (Ciudad Bolivar); Carabobo (Valencia); Cojedes (San Carlos); Falcon (Coro); Guarico (Calabozo); Lara (Barquisimeto); Merida (Merida); Miranda (Ocumare); Monagas (M'Iaturin); Nueva Esparta (La Asuncion); Portuguesa (Guanare); Sucre (Cumana); Tachira (San Cristobal); Trujillo (Trujillo); Yaracuy (San Felipe); Zamora (Barinas); Zulia (Maracaibo), with the following territories: Amazonas (San Fernando de Atabapo); Delta-Amacuro (Tucupita).
The first-class ports are La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Ciudad Bolivar, Maracaibo and Carupano, and the second-class are Sucre, Juan Griego, Guiria, Calm Colorado, Guanta, Tucacas, La Vela and Porlamar.
The distance from Port of Spain to Ciudad Bolivar is 299 m.
Above Ciudad Bolivar transportation is effected by two or three small river steamers and a great number of small craft (lauchas, bungos, balandras, &c.), using sails, oars and punting poles.
Under the currency law of the 31st of March 1879, the thousandth part of a kilogramme of gold was made the monetary unit and was called a bolivar, in honour of the Venezuelan liberator.
The silver 5-bolivar piece is usually known as a ” dollar," and is equivalent to 484 pence, or 962 cents U.S. gold.
A war ensued which lasted for upwards of ten years and the principal events of which are described under Bolivar, a native of Caracas and the leading spirit of the revolt.
Spence, The Land of Bolivar: Adventures in Venezuela (2 vols., London, 1878); J.
From 1848 date the first poetical efforts of Arnaldo Marquez, who is distinguished for his correct diction and rich imagination, as is Nicolas Corpancho for his dramas and a volume of poems entitled Brisas, Adolfo Garcia for a beautiful sonnet to Bolivar, which was published at Havre in 1870, in his one volume of poems, and Clemente Althaus for his productivity and style.
The aid of the Colombians under Simon Bolivar was sought, and Aguero was deposed.
Bolivar arrived at Lima on the 1st of September 1823, and began to organize an army to attack the Spanish viceroy in the interior.
Soon afterwards Bolivar left the army to proceed to the coast, and the final battle of Ayacucho (Dec. 9, 1824) was fought by his second in command, General Sucre.
General Bolivar ruled Peru with dictatorial powers for more than a year, and though there were cabals against him there can be little doubt of his popularity.
This brought to an end the armistice between Bolivar and Morino, and thenceforward the city experienced all the changing fortunes of war until its final capture by the revolutionists in 1823.
His father was Juan Vicente Bolivar y Ponte, and his mother Maria Concepcion Palacios y Sojo, both descended from noble families in Venezuela.
Bolivar was sent to Europe to prosecute his studies, and resided at Madrid for several years.
Bolivar was entrusted with the command of the important post of Puerto Cabello, but not being supported he had to evacuate the place; and owing to the inaction of Miranda the Spaniards recovered their hold over the country.
Like others of the revolutionists Bolivar took to flight, and succeeded in reaching Curacao in safety.
Bolivar was eventually defeated by Boves near Cura, in the plains of La Puerta, and compelled to embark for Cumana with the shattered remains of his forces.
From Cumana Bolivar repaired to Cartagena, and thence to Tunja, where the revolutionary congress of New Granada was sitting.
In the meanwhile Santa Martha had fallen into the hands of the royalists, and Bolivar was ordered to the relief of the place.
From Kingston Bolivar went to Aux Cayes in Haiti, where he was furnished with a small force by President Petion.
Being now recognized as commander-in-chief,Bolivar proceeded in his career of victory, and before the close of the year had fixed his headquarters at Angostura on the Orinoco.
The seat of government was also transferred provisionally to Rosario de Cucuta, on the frontier of the two provinces, and Bolivar again took the field.
Bolivar therefore resolved, if possible, to strike a decisive blow; and this accordingly he did at Carabobo, where, encountering Torre, he so completely routed the Spaniards that the shattered remains of their army were forced to take refuge in Puerto Cabello, where two years after they surrendered to Paez.
On the 29th of June 1821 Bolivar entered Caracas, and by the close of the year the Spaniards were driven from every part of the province except Puerto Cabello.
The next step was to secure, by permanent political institutions, the independence which had been so dearly purchased; and, accordingly, on the 30th of August 1821 the constitution of Colombia was adopted with general approbation, Bolivar himself being president, and Santander vice-president.
The Spaniards, though expelled from Colombia, still held possession of the neighbouring provinces of Ecuador and Peru; and Bolivar determined to complete the liberation of the whole country.
Bolivar then marched upon Lima, which the royalists evacuated at his approach; and entering the capital in triumph, he was invested with absolute power as dictator, and authorized to call into action all the resources of the country.
Improving his advantage, Bolivar pressed forward, and on the 6th of August defeated Canterac on the plains of Junin, after which he returned to Lima, leaving Sucre to follow the royalists in their retreat to Upper Peru - an exploit which the latter executed with equal ability and success, gaining a decisive victory at Ayacucho, and thus completing the dispersion of the Spanish force.
In June 1825 Bolivar visited Upper Peru, which, having detached itself from the government of Buenos Aires, was formed into a separate state, called Bolivia, in honour of the liberator.
The first congress of the new republic assembled in August 1825, when Bolivar was declared perpetual protector, and requested to prepare for it a constitution of government.
In December 1824 Bolivar convoked a constituent congress for the February following; but this body, taking into consideration the unsettled state of the country, thought it proper to invest him with dictatorial power for another year.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
In the meanwhile the affairs of Colombia had taken aturn which demanded the presence of Bolivar in his own country.
Accordingly, having entrusted the government to a council nominated by himself, with Santa Cruz at its head, Bolivar set out from Lima in September 1826, and hastening to Bogota, arrived there on the 14th of November.
In the meanwhile Bolivar and Santander were re-elected to the respective offices of president and vice-president, and by law they should have qualified as such in January 18 27.
In February, however,Bolivar formally resigned the presidency of the republic,at the same time expressing a determination to refute the imputations of ambition which had been so freely cast upon him, by retiring into private life, and spending the remainder of his days on his patrimonial estate.
This view being confirmed by a resolution of congress, although it was not a unanimous one, Bolivar decided to resume his functions, and he repaired to Bogota to take the oaths.