BOLIVAR, an inland state of Venezuela, lying S.
The capital is Ciudad Bolivar, formerly called Angostura, which is situated on the right bank of the Orinoco about 240 m.
Above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.
The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, the conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian statue of Bolivar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and other public offices.
The archbishop of Venezuela resides in Caracas and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the dioceses of Ciudad Bolivar, Calabozo, Barquisimeto, Merida and Maracaibo.
The principal squares are Cathedral, Santa Ana, Bolivar and Lesseps.
Cotton is grown in every county of the state, but the large yields are in the Delta (Bolivar, Coaohma, Washington, Yazoo and Leflore counties), the greatest cotton-producing region of the world, and in Monroe, Lowndes and Noxubee counties on the Alabama border.
Of the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery in Mercer county, practically the whole E.
At Ciudad Bolivar, which is less sheltered from the trade-winds, the mean is 83° and the maximum 91.4°.
The first-class ports are La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Ciudad Bolivar, Maracaibo and Carupano, and the second-class are Sucre, Juan Griego, Guiria, Calm Colorado, Guanta, Tucacas, La Vela and Porlamar.
The distance from Port of Spain to Ciudad Bolivar is 299 m.
Above Ciudad Bolivar transportation is effected by two or three small river steamers and a great number of small craft (lauchas, bungos, balandras, &c.), using sails, oars and punting poles.
Under the currency law of the 31st of March 1879, the thousandth part of a kilogramme of gold was made the monetary unit and was called a bolivar, in honour of the Venezuelan liberator.
The silver 5-bolivar piece is usually known as a ” dollar," and is equivalent to 484 pence, or 962 cents U.S. gold.
A war ensued which lasted for upwards of ten years and the principal events of which are described under Bolivar, a native of Caracas and the leading spirit of the revolt.
Spence, The Land of Bolivar: Adventures in Venezuela (2 vols., London, 1878); J.
The aid of the Colombians under Simon Bolivar was sought, and Aguero was deposed.
Bolivar arrived at Lima on the 1st of September 1823, and began to organize an army to attack the Spanish viceroy in the interior.
Soon afterwards Bolivar left the army to proceed to the coast, and the final battle of Ayacucho (Dec. 9, 1824) was fought by his second in command, General Sucre.
General Bolivar ruled Peru with dictatorial powers for more than a year, and though there were cabals against him there can be little doubt of his popularity.
This brought to an end the armistice between Bolivar and Morino, and thenceforward the city experienced all the changing fortunes of war until its final capture by the revolutionists in 1823.
His father was Juan Vicente Bolivar y Ponte, and his mother Maria Concepcion Palacios y Sojo, both descended from noble families in Venezuela.
Bolivar was sent to Europe to prosecute his studies, and resided at Madrid for several years.
Bolivar was entrusted with the command of the important post of Puerto Cabello, but not being supported he had to evacuate the place; and owing to the inaction of Miranda the Spaniards recovered their hold over the country.
Like others of the revolutionists Bolivar took to flight, and succeeded in reaching Curacao in safety.
From Cumana Bolivar repaired to Cartagena, and thence to Tunja, where the revolutionary congress of New Granada was sitting.
In the meanwhile Santa Martha had fallen into the hands of the royalists, and Bolivar was ordered to the relief of the place.
From Kingston Bolivar went to Aux Cayes in Haiti, where he was furnished with a small force by President Petion.
Being now recognized as commander-in-chief,Bolivar proceeded in his career of victory, and before the close of the year had fixed his headquarters at Angostura on the Orinoco.
The seat of government was also transferred provisionally to Rosario de Cucuta, on the frontier of the two provinces, and Bolivar again took the field.
Bolivar therefore resolved, if possible, to strike a decisive blow; and this accordingly he did at Carabobo, where, encountering Torre, he so completely routed the Spaniards that the shattered remains of their army were forced to take refuge in Puerto Cabello, where two years after they surrendered to Paez.
On the 29th of June 1821 Bolivar entered Caracas, and by the close of the year the Spaniards were driven from every part of the province except Puerto Cabello.
The next step was to secure, by permanent political institutions, the independence which had been so dearly purchased; and, accordingly, on the 30th of August 1821 the constitution of Colombia was adopted with general approbation, Bolivar himself being president, and Santander vice-president.
The Spaniards, though expelled from Colombia, still held possession of the neighbouring provinces of Ecuador and Peru; and Bolivar determined to complete the liberation of the whole country.
Bolivar then marched upon Lima, which the royalists evacuated at his approach; and entering the capital in triumph, he was invested with absolute power as dictator, and authorized to call into action all the resources of the country.
In June 1825 Bolivar visited Upper Peru, which, having detached itself from the government of Buenos Aires, was formed into a separate state, called Bolivia, in honour of the liberator.
The first congress of the new republic assembled in August 1825, when Bolivar was declared perpetual protector, and requested to prepare for it a constitution of government.
In December 1824 Bolivar convoked a constituent congress for the February following; but this body, taking into consideration the unsettled state of the country, thought it proper to invest him with dictatorial power for another year.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
In the meanwhile the affairs of Colombia had taken aturn which demanded the presence of Bolivar in his own country.
Accordingly, having entrusted the government to a council nominated by himself, with Santa Cruz at its head, Bolivar set out from Lima in September 1826, and hastening to Bogota, arrived there on the 14th of November.
In the meanwhile Bolivar and Santander were re-elected to the respective offices of president and vice-president, and by law they should have qualified as such in January 18 27.
In February, however,Bolivar formally resigned the presidency of the republic,at the same time expressing a determination to refute the imputations of ambition which had been so freely cast upon him, by retiring into private life, and spending the remainder of his days on his patrimonial estate.
This view being confirmed by a resolution of congress, although it was not a unanimous one, Bolivar decided to resume his functions, and he repaired to Bogota to take the oaths.
Not long after his departure from Lima, the Bolivian code had been adopted as the constitution of Peru, and Bolivar had been declared president for life on the 9th of December 1826, the anniversary of the battle of Ayacucho.
Intelligence of these events reached Bolivar while in the north of Colombia, and he lost no time in preparing to march against the refractory troops, who formerly had placed such implicit confidence in him.
In the meanwhile Bolivar had accepted the presidency, and resumed the functions belonging to his official position.
Bolivar had, no doubt, regained the personal confidence of the officers and soldiers of the third division; but the republican party, with Santander at their head, continued to regard with undisguised apprehension his ascendancy over the army, suspecting him of a desire to imitate the career of Napoleon.
In virtue of a decree, dated Bogota, the 27th of August 1828, Bolivar assumed the supreme power in Colombia, and continued to exercise it until his death, which took place at San Pedro, near Santa Marta, on the 1 7th of December 1830.
Bolivar spent nine-tenths of a splendid patrimony in the service of his country; and although he had for a considerable period unlimited control over the revenues of three countries - Colombia, Peru and Bolivia - he died without a shilling of public money in his possession.
Bolivar, Colombia >>
CARTAGENA, Or CARTHAGENA, a city, seaport, and the capital of the department of Bolivar, Colombia, South America, on the Caribbean coast, in Io 2 5' 48" N., 75° 34' W.
It was taken by Bolivar in 1815, but was surrendered to the royalists in the same year.
The entire river trade centres upon Ciudad Bolivar, on the right bank of the Orinoco, 373 m.
There is steam connexion between Ciudad Bolivar and the island of Trinidad.
Of the various states of Central and South America, Nicaragua has the American Order of San Juan or Grey Town, founded in 1857, in three classes; and Venezuela that of the Bust of Bolivar, 1854, five classes; the ribbon is yellow, blue and red.
The Bolivar Heights.
The engine-house in which Brown was captured was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago and was later rebuilt on Bolivar Heights; a marble pillar, marked "John Brown's Fort," has been erected on its original site.
On Jackson's approach they were distributed as follows: about 7000 men on Bolivar Heights, about 2000 on Maryland Heights, and about 1800 on the lower ground.
SIMON BOLIVAR (1783-1830), the hero of South American independence, was born in the city of Caracas, Venezuela, on the 24th of July 1783.