BOLIVAR, an inland state of Venezuela, lying S.
The capital is Ciudad Bolivar, formerly called Angostura, which is situated on the right bank of the Orinoco about 240 m.
Above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.
The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, the conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian statue of Bolivar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and other public offices.
The archbishop of Venezuela resides in Caracas and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the dioceses of Ciudad Bolivar, Calabozo, Barquisimeto, Merida and Maracaibo.
The principal squares are Cathedral, Santa Ana, Bolivar and Lesseps.
Cotton is grown in every county of the state, but the large yields are in the Delta (Bolivar, Coaohma, Washington, Yazoo and Leflore counties), the greatest cotton-producing region of the world, and in Monroe, Lowndes and Noxubee counties on the Alabama border.
Of the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery in Mercer county, practically the whole E.
At Ciudad Bolivar, which is less sheltered from the trade-winds, the mean is 83° and the maximum 91.4°.
The first-class ports are La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Ciudad Bolivar, Maracaibo and Carupano, and the second-class are Sucre, Juan Griego, Guiria, Calm Colorado, Guanta, Tucacas, La Vela and Porlamar.
The distance from Port of Spain to Ciudad Bolivar is 299 m.
Above Ciudad Bolivar transportation is effected by two or three small river steamers and a great number of small craft (lauchas, bungos, balandras, &c.), using sails, oars and punting poles.
Under the currency law of the 31st of March 1879, the thousandth part of a kilogramme of gold was made the monetary unit and was called a bolivar, in honour of the Venezuelan liberator.
The silver 5-bolivar piece is usually known as a ” dollar," and is equivalent to 484 pence, or 962 cents U.S. gold.
A war ensued which lasted for upwards of ten years and the principal events of which are described under Bolivar, a native of Caracas and the leading spirit of the revolt.
Spence, The Land of Bolivar: Adventures in Venezuela (2 vols., London, 1878); J.
The aid of the Colombians under Simon Bolivar was sought, and Aguero was deposed.
Bolivar arrived at Lima on the 1st of September 1823, and began to organize an army to attack the Spanish viceroy in the interior.
Soon afterwards Bolivar left the army to proceed to the coast, and the final battle of Ayacucho (Dec. 9, 1824) was fought by his second in command, General Sucre.
General Bolivar ruled Peru with dictatorial powers for more than a year, and though there were cabals against him there can be little doubt of his popularity.
This brought to an end the armistice between Bolivar and Morino, and thenceforward the city experienced all the changing fortunes of war until its final capture by the revolutionists in 1823.
His father was Juan Vicente Bolivar y Ponte, and his mother Maria Concepcion Palacios y Sojo, both descended from noble families in Venezuela.
Bolivar was sent to Europe to prosecute his studies, and resided at Madrid for several years.
Bolivar was entrusted with the command of the important post of Puerto Cabello, but not being supported he had to evacuate the place; and owing to the inaction of Miranda the Spaniards recovered their hold over the country.
Like others of the revolutionists Bolivar took to flight, and succeeded in reaching Curacao in safety.
From Cumana Bolivar repaired to Cartagena, and thence to Tunja, where the revolutionary congress of New Granada was sitting.
In the meanwhile Santa Martha had fallen into the hands of the royalists, and Bolivar was ordered to the relief of the place.
From Kingston Bolivar went to Aux Cayes in Haiti, where he was furnished with a small force by President Petion.
Being now recognized as commander-in-chief,Bolivar proceeded in his career of victory, and before the close of the year had fixed his headquarters at Angostura on the Orinoco.
The seat of government was also transferred provisionally to Rosario de Cucuta, on the frontier of the two provinces, and Bolivar again took the field.
Bolivar therefore resolved, if possible, to strike a decisive blow; and this accordingly he did at Carabobo, where, encountering Torre, he so completely routed the Spaniards that the shattered remains of their army were forced to take refuge in Puerto Cabello, where two years after they surrendered to Paez.
The Bolivar Heights.
The engine-house in which Brown was captured was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago and was later rebuilt on Bolivar Heights; a marble pillar, marked "John Brown's Fort," has been erected on its original site.
On Jackson's approach they were distributed as follows: about 7000 men on Bolivar Heights, about 2000 on Maryland Heights, and about 1800 on the lower ground.
Of the various states of Central and South America, Nicaragua has the American Order of San Juan or Grey Town, founded in 1857, in three classes; and Venezuela that of the Bust of Bolivar, 1854, five classes; the ribbon is yellow, blue and red.
The entire river trade centres upon Ciudad Bolivar, on the right bank of the Orinoco, 373 m.
There is steam connexion between Ciudad Bolivar and the island of Trinidad.
CARTAGENA, Or CARTHAGENA, a city, seaport, and the capital of the department of Bolivar, Colombia, South America, on the Caribbean coast, in Io 2 5' 48" N., 75° 34' W.
It was taken by Bolivar in 1815, but was surrendered to the royalists in the same year.
SIMON BOLIVAR (1783-1830), the hero of South American independence, was born in the city of Caracas, Venezuela, on the 24th of July 1783.
On the 29th of June 1821 Bolivar entered Caracas, and by the close of the year the Spaniards were driven from every part of the province except Puerto Cabello.
The next step was to secure, by permanent political institutions, the independence which had been so dearly purchased; and, accordingly, on the 30th of August 1821 the constitution of Colombia was adopted with general approbation, Bolivar himself being president, and Santander vice-president.