Malt, tinware, flour and grist-mill products, boilers, stoves and ranges, optical supplies, wall-paper, cereals, canned goods, cutlery, tin cans and wagons are manufactured, and there are also extensive nurseries.
Cylinders, tanks and independent boilers should be encased in a non-conducting material such as silicate cotton, thick felt or asbestos composition.
Two classes of boilers are chiefly used in hot-water heating installations, viz.
Independent boilers are made in every conceivable size and form of construction, and many of them are capable of doing excellent work.
Boilers set in brickwork are sometimes used in domestic work, although they are more favoured for horticultural heating.
The manufactures comprise sheet-iron, boilers, zinc, brick and tiles, paraffin, petroleum, soap and candles.
The quality of the last is a matter of great importance; when it is unsuitable, the boilers will suffer, and the installation of a water-softening plant may save more in the expenses of boiler maintenance than it costs to operate.
Their boilers are of relatively large proportions for the train weight and average speed, and the driving wheels of small diameter, a large proportion of their total weight being " adhesive."
Other manufactures are boilers, foundry products, lumber and fertilizers; and there are two shipyards.
Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of engines, boilers, metal-working machinery, wood-working machinery, pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second among the state's manufactures; their value increased from $43,617,07 2 in 1890 to $72,399,632 in 1900, and to $94,507,691 in 1905.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
The process of soap-boiling is carried out in large iron boilers called " soap pans " or " coppers," some of which have capacity for a charge of 30 tons or more.
A monopoly of soap-making was farmed to a corporation of soap-boilers in London - a proceeding which led to serious complications.
The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.
They manufacture copper boilers for making sugar and understand several trades, weave ponchos and hammocks and make straw hats.
Being a bad conductor of heat it is used for the packing and jackets of boilers and steam-pipes.
It is the distributing centre for the surrounding district, and exports railway carriages, engines, boilers, stoves, &c.
Among its manufactures are foundry and machineshop products, boilers, carriages and wagons, agricultural implements, pipe and fittings, working-men's gloves, &c. In 1905 the total factory product was valued at $6,729,381, or 61.5% more than in 1900.
The bagasse so used is now commonly taken straight from the cane mill to furnaces specially designed for burning it, in its moist state and without previous drying, and delivering the hot gases from it to suitable boilers, such as those of the multitubular type or of the water-tube type.
The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.
Petroleum refineries, iron-foundries, chemicals, soap-boiling, silk-spinning and the production of ships' fittings, as marine steam boilers, anchors, chains, cables, are the other principal branches of industry.
An ample supply of natural gas is utilized by its manufacturing establishments; and among its manufactures are axes, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, furniture, boilers, woollen goods, glass and chemical fire-engines.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
In this portion of the pit are generally placed the furnaces for ventilation, and the boilers required for working steam engines underground, as well as the stables and lamp cabin.
Soldiers scattered over the whole place were dragging logs and brushwood and were building shelters with merry chatter and laughter; around the fires sat others, dressed and undressed, drying their shirts and leg bands or mending boots or overcoats and crowding round the boilers and porridge cookers.