They were driven out by Boer trekkers in 1837.
This is not the Spion Kop rendered famous during the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902.
Such was the situation when Boer emigrants first crossed the Vaal.
To Boer cultivation the valley of the Marico river owes its fertility.
On the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, these same chiefs, at a great meeting held in the presence of the resident commissioner, gave a further protestation of their loyalty to Her Majesty.
Sir John Robinson had been succeeded as premier by Mr Harry Escombe (February-October 1897) and Escombe by Sir Henry Binns, on whose death in June 1899 Lieut.-Colonel (afterwards Sir) Albert Hime formed a ministry which remained in office until after the conclusion of the Anglo-Boer War.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
In the early months of the Boer War of 1899-1902 Aliwal North was held by the Boers.
On the outbreak of the Anglo-Boer war in 1899 Mafeking was invested by a Boer force.
In 1901 Bellary was chosen as one of the places of detention in India for Boer prisoners of war.
At the same time the Boer commandoes were requested to leave the country.
After the Jameson raid and the Emperor's telegram to President Kruger, in the drafting of which Baron Marschall, according to the later testimony now available, bore a leading part, it was he who declared in the Reichstag that the maintenance of the independence of the Boer republics was a " German interest."
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
Distant from the village of Weenen (" Weeping "), so named by the first Boer settlers in memory of a Zulu raid.
The Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) caused both revenue and expenditure to rise abnormally, while the depression in trade which followed the war adversely affected the exchequer.
The public debt, £2,101,500 in 1882, had risen at the close of the Boer War in 1902 to £12,519,000, and was in June 1909, £ 21,420,000.
At this time, had the affairs of the Boer community been managed with prudence and sagacity they might have established an enduring state.
They were in loose alliance with and in quasi-supremacy over the Boer communities which had left the Cape and settled at Winburg and at Potchefstroom.
On the night of the 23rd of May Smith made an unsuccessful attack on the Boer camp, losing his guns and fifty men killed and wounded.
He started on the night of the 24th, and escaping the Boer outposts rode through the dense bush and across the bridgeless rivers of Kaffraria at peril of his life from hostile natives and wild beasts, and in nine days reached his destination - a distance of 360 m.
His administration is notable, not so much for internal affairs but from the fact that he twice acted as arbitrator in disputes in which the Boer states were involved.
On the 12th Laing's Nek was occupied by the Boer forces, who were moved in considerable force over the Natal border.
Fortunately Symons was able to win a complete victory over one of the Boer columns at Talana Hill.
He again attacked the Boer forces at Rietfontein on the 24th of October, and on the 26th General Yule reached Ladysmith in safety.
The relief of Ladysmith soon led to the evacuation of Natal by the Boer forces, who trekked northwards.
During the Boer invasion the government and the loyal colonists, constituting the great majority of the inhabitants of the colony, rendered the Imperial forces every assistance.
(Cape Town, 1856), reprinted as The History of the Great Boer Trek (London, 1899), an authoritative record; J.
Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1-62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1-14%.
It will be seen that twenty districts are enumerated, these being the divisions under the Boer government and still commonly used.
The owner of the land, a Boer named Prinsloo, refused to allow experimental spade work, but after the conclusion of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 sold his property for £55,000 to T.
The Anglo-Boer War completely disorganized trade, but the close of the contest was marked by feverish activity and the customs receipts in1902-1903rose to £2,176,658.
£2,679,000 £4,671,000 £4,394,000 £3,971,000 The public debt of the Boer government was £2,500,000.
State schools for white children were established by the Boer government, and in the last year (1898) before the British occupation there were 509 schools and 14,700 scholars, the education vote that year being £226,000.
On returning to the Vet, Potgieter learned that a hunting party of Boers which had crossed the Vaal had been attacked by the Matabele, who had also killed Boer women and children.
This act led to reprisals, and on the 17th of January 1837 a Boer commando surprised Mosilikatze's encampment at Mosega, inflicting heavy loss on the Matabele without themselves 1 Two small children were spared and brought up as Kaffirs.
In 1867 they were given over to the Boer government by the Swazis, who had acquired them from their captors.
Up to 1845 Potgieter continued to exercise authority over the Boer communities on both sides of the Vaal.
Sechele was regarded by the Boers as owing them allegiance, and in August 1852 Pretorius sent against him a commando (in which Paul Kruger served as a field cornet), alleging that the Bakwena were harbouring a Bakatla chief who had looted cattle belonging to Boer farmers.
It is true that laws prohibiting slavery were in existence, but the Boer who periodically took up arms against his own appointed government was not likely to be, nor was he, restrained by laws.
The award, admittedly just on the evidence before Keate, placed, however, outside the territory of the republic the Bloemhof district, in which district Boer farmers were settled, and over which the Pretoria government had for some years exercised jurisdiction.
Thus Sir Bartle Frere wrote at the time: " All accounts from Pretoria represent that the great body of the Boer population is still under the belief that the Zulus are more than a match for us, that our difficulties are more than we can surmount, and that the present is the favourable opportunity for demanding their independence."
So keenly were the Midlothian speeches appreciated by the Boers that the Boer committee wrote a letter of thanks to Gladstone, and expressed the hope that should a change in the government of Great Britain occur, " the injustice done to the Transvaal might find redress."
On the 20th of December some 240 men under Colonel Anstruther, chiefly belonging to the 94th Regiment, while marching from Lydenburg to Pretoria, were surprised at Bronkhorst Spruit, and cut up by the Boer forces.
Having been defeated at Laing's Nek, and suffered considerable loss in an engagement near Ingogo, Colley took a force to the top of Majuba, a mountain overlooking the Boer camp and the nek.
On the 6th of March a truce was concluded and on the 21st terms of peace were arranged between the Boer triumvirate and Sir Evelyn Wood.
Pretoria through Boer sources, and when first received there was laughed at by the garrison and inhabitants as a Boer joke.
On the one side were the Boer triumvirate, on the other Sir Evelyn Wood, Sir Hercules Robinson (Frere's successor in the high cornmissionership), and Sir J.
In 1882 also began that alteration of the franchise law which subsequently developed into positive exclusion of practically all save the original Boer burghers of the country from the franchise.
This act called forth a protest from the 15th Lord Derby (now secretary of state for the colonies), stating that he could not recognize the right of Boer freebooters to set up governments of their own on the Transvaal borders.
Simultaneously with this " irresponsible " movement for expansion, President Kruger proceeded to London to interview Lord Derby and endeavour to induce him to dispense with the suzerainty, and to withdraw other clauses in the Pretoria Convention on foreign relations and natives, which were objectionable from the Boer point of view.
In what followed it must always be remembered that Lord Derby began by emphatically rejecting the first Boer draft of a treaty on the ground that no treaty was possible except between equal sovereign states.
Notwithstanding the precise fixing of the boundaries of the republic by the London Convention, President Kruger endeavoured to maintain the Boer hold on Goshen and Stellaland, but the British government on Efforts.
At the same time President Kruger revived the project of obtaining a seaport for the state, one of the objects of Boer ambitions since 1860 (vide supra).
The wealth which was pouring into the Boer state coffers exceeded the wildest dreams of President Kruger and his followers.
The soundness of these views and the legitimacy of Uitlander aspirations were recognized by a few Boer officials at Pretoria.
The words were but the utterance of an individual Raad member, but they were only a shade less offensive than those used by Kruger in 1892, and they too accurately describe the attitude of the Boer executive.
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
During the Boer War 1899-1902 he volunteered for service against the English and joined Gen.
Manning, and small numbers of British and Boer mounted infantry, Indian and African troops were employed, while an Abyssinian force held the line of the Webi Shebeli.
In February 1901 he was called upon to undertake the administration of the two Boer states, both now annexed to the British Empire, though the war was still in progress.
It became the capital of a quasi-independent Boer state, which included considerable areas north of the Vaal.
In the Boer War of1899-1902Winburg was one of the Boer centres in the guerrilla fighting which followed the fall of Pretoria.
Natives were openly transferred from one Boer to another, and the fact that they were described as apprentices by the farmers did not in the least alter the status of the native, who to all intents and purposes became the property of his master.
She was intensely pro-Boer and wrote a strong argument in favour of Boer independence.