According to Flint, 4 there were four men who in this and the preceding century seized and made prominent this idea, namely, Bodin, Bacon, Descartes and Pascal.
JEAN BODIN (1530-1596), French political philosopher, was born at Angers in 1530.
Bodin showed a more rational appreciation than many of his contemporaries of the causes of this revolution, and the relation of the variations in money to the market values of wares in general as well as to the wages of labour.
This tract, the Discours sur les causes de l'extreme cherte qui est aujourdhuy en France (1574), and the disquisition on public revenues in the sixth book of the Republique, entitle Bodin to a distinguished position among the earlier economists.
When Bodin found he could not prevent this resolution being carried, he contrived to get inserted in the petition drawn up by the states the clause "without war," which practically rendered nugatory all its other clauses.
With all his breadth and liberality of mind Bodin was a credulous believer in witchcraft, the virtues of numbers and the power of the stars, and in 1580 he published the Demonomanie des sorciers, a work which shows that he was not exempt from the prejudices of the age.
His chief work, the Six livres de la Republique (Paris, 1576), which passed through several editions in his lifetime, that of 1583 having as an appendix L'A pologie de Rene Herpin (Bodin himself), was the first modern attempt to construct an elaborate system of political science.
Baudrillart, Bodin et son temps (Paris, 1853); Ad.
Planchenault, Etudes sur Jean Bodin (Angers, 1858); E.
Bodin (Paris, 1876); for the political philosophy of Bodin, see P. Janet, Hist.
Bardoux, Les Legistes et leur influence sur la soc.francaise; Fournol, Bodin predecesseur de Montesquieu (Paris, 1896); for his political economy, J.
Bodin defines the state thus: "Respublica est familiarum rerumque inter ipsas communium, summa potestate ac ratione moderata multitudo."
According to Bodin, there is in the state unlimited one power: "Majestas est summa in cives ac subditos legibusque soluta potestas" (i.
See the collection of definitions in Der Souveranitatsbegriff im Bodin, &c., by Dr Adolf Dock (1897), p. 6, and in La Conception juridique de l'etat, by Combothecra, p. 90).
For example, Bodin gives a list of the of Sove- properties of majestas or sovereignty: (a) " Legem reignty.
Jean Bodin wrote the first treatise on scientific history (Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem, 1566), but he did not apply his own principles of criticism; and it was left for the Benedictine monks of the Congregation of St Maur to establish definitely the new science.
In his book De la Republique Bodin treats of ceux qui soot en protection (1.
Elsewhere Bodin remarks, " le mot de protection est special et n'emporte aucune subjection de celuy qui est en protection."
- Bodin, Les Six livres de la Republique (Lyons, 1580); De republica libri sex (Paris, 1586); Stengel, Die Staatsund volkerrechtliche Stellung der deutschen Colonien (1886); Heimburger, Der Erwerb der Gebietshoheit (1888); D'Orgeval, Les Protectorats allemands; annales de l'Ecole des Sciences Politiques (1890); Wilhelm, Theorie juridique des protectorats (1890); Despagnet, Essai sur les protectorats (1896); Heilborn, Das volkerrechtliche Protectorat (1891); Hall, The Foreign Jurisdiction of the British Crown (1894) Stengel, Die deutschen Schutzgebiete (1895); Gairal, Les Protectorats internationaux; Ieze, Etude theorique, eec., sur l'occupation, eec. (1896); Trione, Gli stati civili nei loro rapporti giuridici coi popoli barbari e semibarbari (1889); Ilbert, The Government of India (1898); Jenkyns, British Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas (1902); Laband, Das Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches (1876-1882), Revue de droit international, civilises, et barbares, xvii.