75° S.), the party subsisting mainly on seal meat cooked over blubber lamps devised with much ingenuity.
After being purchased at the auction sales they are washed, then stretched upon a hoop, when all blubber and unnecessary flesh is removed, and the pelt is reduced to an equal thickness, but not so thin as it is finally rendered.
The liquid waxes occur in the blubber of the sperm whale, and in the head cavities of those whales which yield spermaceti; this latter is obtained by cooling the crude oil obtained from the head cavities.
There are generally in a coloni three or four Danish houses, built of wood and pitched over, in addition to storehouses and a blubber-boiling establishment.
It resembles the sperm-whale in possessing a large store of oil in the upper part of the head, which yields spermaceti when refined; on this account, and also for the sake of the blubber, which supplies an oil almost indistinguishable from sperm-oil, this whale became the object of a regular chase in the latter half of the 19th century.
Horn, hoof-parings, woollen rags, fish, blubber and blood, after treatment with sulphuric acid, are all good manures, and should be utilized if readily obtainable.
"Train-oil" proper is the northern whale-oil, but this term has been applied to all blubber oils, and in Germany, to all marine animal oils - fish-oils, liver oils, and blubber oils.
Fish and blubber oils are principally produced in Dundee, London and Greenock.
The whaling industry came into importance towards the close of the 19th century, and stations for the extraction of the oil and whalebone have been established at several points, under careful regulations designed to mitigate the pollution of water, the danger to livestock from eating the blubber, &c. The finner whale is the species most commonly taken.
By melting the blubber over a free fire, the process of rendering is fast becoming obsolete, the modern practice being to deliver the blubber in as fresh a state as possible to the "whaling establishments," where the oil is rendered by methods closely resembling those worked in the enormous rendering establishments (for tallow, lard, bone fat) in the United States and in South America.
A few of the blubber oils, like dolphin jaw and porpoise jaw oils (used for lubricating typewriting machines), have exceedingly high saponification values ` owing to their containing volatile fatty acids with a small number of carbon atoms. Notable also are coco-nut and palm-nut oils, the saponification numbers of which vary from 240 to 260, and especially butter-fat, which has a saponification value of about 227.
Whale-oil varies in colour from a bright honey yellow to a dark brown, according to the condition of the blubber from which it has been extracted.
Canada is likely to outstrip the United States in the trade of fish and blubber oils, and in tie near future Japan bids fair to become a very serious competitor in the supply of these oils.