The work of blockade, and of harassing the Confederates on the coast and the rivers of the Atlantic seaboard, called for much service in boats, and entailed a great deal of exposure.
The American commodore was now able to blockade the British flotilla at Kingston.
Albany had to blockade Margaret in Stirling Castle before she would surrender her sons, After being obliged to capitulate, Margaret returned to Edinburgh, and being no longer responsible for the custody of the king she fled to England in September, where a month later she bore to Angus a daughter, Margaret, who afterwards became countess of Lennox, mother of Lord Darnley and grandmother of James I.
On sea the Athenians, after two minor engagements, gained a decisive victory which enabled them to blockade Aegina.
Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), which at the beginning of the 19th century, at the time of the Continental blockade, and again during the American War of Secession, was largely cultivated, is now grown only in parts of Sicily and in a few southern provinces.
The instance of Great Britain Napoleon withdrew his qu ted squadron, that the blockade could be made complete.
The Ostrogoth collected a fleet and established a severe blockade, which at length caused Odoacer to surrender the city.
When it was known that Admiral Cervera, with a Spanish fleet, had left the Cape Verde Islands, Sampson withdrew a force from the blockade to cruise in the Windward Passage, and made an attack upon the forts at San Juan, Porto Rico.
After his return to the coast of Cuba he conducted the blockade of Santiago, and the ships under his command destroyed the Spanish vessels when they issued from the harbor of Santiago and attempted to escape (see Spanish-American War).
An international blockade of the island was proposed by Austria but rejected by England.
In 413, on the suggestion of Alcibiades, he fortified Decelea in Attica, where he remained directing operations until, after the battle of Aegospotami (405), he took the leading part in the blockade of Athens, which was ended in spring 404 by the surrender of the city.
After occupying the Prussian capital he launched against England the famous Berlin Decree (21st of November 1806), declaring her coasts to be in a state of blockade, and prohibiting all commerce with them.
Doria resolved to blockade and starve Venice to surrender.
During the long wars with Genoa, after the defeats of Curzola, Sapienza, Pola, above all during the crisis of the war of Chioggia, it had been brought home to the Venetians that, as they owned no meat or corn-producing territory, a crushing defeat at sea and a blockade on the mainland exposed them to the grave danger of being starved into surrender.
The blockade of the harbour by Yeo was abandoned in June 1814 after the defeat of a force from the squadron sent out to capture guns which were being brought from Oswego to Sackett's.
A blockade of Egypt by an international fleet, an alliance with the Mongols, the union of the two great orders - these are the three staple heads of these proposals.
The plan of an international fleet to coerce the Mahommedan is even to this day ineffective; but the Hospitallers, who acquired a new basis by the conquest of Rhodes in 1310, used their fleet to enforce a partial and, on the whole, ineffective blockade of the coast of the Levant.
An attack on the neighbouring town of Tamsui failed, but a semi-blockade of the island was maintained by the French fleet during the winter and spring of 1884-1885.
The extraordinary difference between the normal trade of the islands and that due to blockade-running will be seen by comparing the imports and exports before the' closing of the southern ports in 1860 with those of 1864.
Existing at Nassau during the days of blockade-running exceed belief.
The tsar consented, and proposed that the coercion should take the form of a pacific blockade of the Morea, so as to force Ibrahim, by cutting off his supplies, to evacuate the country.
In general it was allowed that these means should be the " pacific blockade " proposed by the tsar.
In July 1804 he ordered his admiral commanding at Toulon, Latouche Treville, to seize an opportunity when Nelson, who was in command of the blockade, was driven off by a northerly gale, to put to sea, with 1 0 sail of the line, pick up the French ship in Cadiz, join Villeneuve who was in the Aix roads, and then effect a junction with Ganteaume and the 21 sail of the line at Brest.
The blockade of Brest was so strictly maintained that Ganteaume was allowed no opportunity to get to sea.
With the hope of raising the blockade of Cadiz, a force under Sir Thomas Graham (afterwards Lord Lynedoch [q.v.]) left that harbour by sea, and joining with Spanish troops near Tarifa, advanced by land against Victor's blockading force, a Spanish general, La Pena, being in chief command.
The French afterwards resumed the blockade, so that although Barrosa was an allied victory, its object was not attained.
Subsequently, leaving Hill in the Alemtejo, he returned towards Almeida, and with 40,000 men commenced a blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo, his headquarters being at Fuente Guinaldo.
The executive council, which had been appointed by the Potchefstroom assembly, with Pretorius as president, now took up a bolder attitude: they deposed Schoeman from all authority, declared Zoutpansberg in a state of blockade, and denounced the Boers of the two northern districts as rebels.
In 310 Agathocles, defeated and besieged in Syracuse, took the desperate resolve of breaking through the blockade and attacking the enemy in Africa.
The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enterprises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 1903 by English, German and Italian warships.
Meanwhile the country, which up to the blockade of 1903 had been seething with revolutions, now became much quieter.
However, the blockade on the land side was now almost 4 The chief authorities for the siege are Thucydides (bks.
A siege and blockade, with confused fighting and alternate victory and defeat, and all the horrors of fire and slaughter, followed, till Dion made himself finally master of the mainland city.
Marcellus had recourse to a blockade, but Carthaginian vessels from time to time contrived to throw in supplies.
The number of naval ships was increased between 1861 and 1865 from 90 to 670, the officers from 1300 to 6700, the seamen from 7500 to 51,500, and the annual expenditure from $12,000,000 to $123,000,000; important changes were made in the art of naval construction, and the blockade of the Confederate ports was effectively maintained.
Though the battle between the two vessels was indecisive, its effect was to "neutralize" the "Merrimac," which had caused great alarm in Washington, and to prevent the breaking of the Federal blockade at Hampton Roads; in the history of naval warfare it may be regarded as marking the opening of a new era - the era of the armoured warship. On the 3rd of February 1865 near Fortress Monroe on board a steamer occurred the meeting of President Lincoln and Secretary Seward with Confederate commissioners which is known as the Hampton Roads Conference (see Lincoln, Abraham).
At the end of the rule of the knights (1798) the population was estimated at roo,000; sickness, famine and emigration during the blockade of the French in Valletta probably reduced the inhabitants to 80,000.
The prospect of an English blockade of Malta encouraged the revolt, of which Canon Caruana became the leader.
Nelson was appealed to, and with the aid of Portuguese allies he established a blockade and deputed Captain Ball, R.
Under his command the fleet made no attempt to blockade the Dutch coast, but was turned from its proper work to engage in a prize-hunting plot with the king of Denmark.
Repulsed in this attempt, the Japanese established a stringent blockade, which tried the endurance of the ships and the men to the utmost.
The squadron nevertheless tamely returned to harbour, Togo resumed the blockade and Nogi began his advance from Nanshan, but the 2nd and 4th Armies came to a standstill at once (naval escort for their sea-borne supplies being no longer available), and the 1st Army, whose turn to advance had just arrived, only pushed ahead a few miles to cover a larger supply area.
This factor was the rupture of communications with foreign countries, due in the earlier stages of the war to the limitation, and at one time the prohibition, of exports by neutral countries, the passing over of some of these countries to the enemy, and lastly the blockade by the enemy Powers, which increased in efficiency and made it more and more difficult to import the most essential commodities, until in the end it was almost impossible to obtain from abroad anything, needed either for the soldiers or the civilians.
But the blockade of 3000 miles of coast was a far more formidable task, and international law required it to be effective in order to be respected.
Nevertheless along the whole line some kind of surveillance was established long before the close of 1861, and, in proportion as the number of vessels available increased, the blockade became more and more stringent, until at last it was practically unbreakable at any point save by the fastest steamers working under unusually favourable conditions of wind and weather.
Meanwhile the blockade had become so stringent that few ordinary vessels could expect to break through, and a special type of steamer came into vogue for the purpose.
It has been said that the blockade of the Confederate coast became in the end practically impenetrable, and that every attempt of the Confederate naval forces to break out was checked at once by crushing numerical preponderance.
The exciting and profitable occupation of blockade-running led to countless small fights off the various harbours, and sometimes the United States navy had to fight a more serious action when some new "rebel" ironclad emerged from her harbour, inlet or sound.
When, however, surveillance became blockade, prizes could only with difficulty be brought into port, and, since the parties interested gained nothing by burning merchantmen, privateering soon died out, and was replaced by commerce-destroying pure and simple, carried out by commissioned vessels of the Confederate navy.
The British government, not feeling strong enough to blockade Brest and the Spanish ports, was compelled to regulate its movements by those of its opponents.