(more than 70% of the total) of the state's area, and bituminous coal has been found in 51 of the 55 counties; this is one of the largest continuous coal fields in the world.
The seams are principally above water levels and in many cases have been laid bare by erosion; and the supply is varied - besides a " fat coking, gassy bituminous," there are an excellent grade of splint coal (first mined in 1864 at Coalburg, Kanawha county) and (except that in Kentucky) the only important supply of cannel coal in the United States.
The bituminous coal of West Virginia is a particularly good coking coal, and in 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908 West Virginia ranked second (to Pennsylvania) among the states of the Union in the amount of coke manufactured; the Flat Top district is the principal cokemaking region.
Below Mosul, for some distance, occur sulphurous and bituminous springs.
Sulphur is obtained near Apt (Vaucluse) and in a few other localities of south-eastern France; bituminous schist near Autun (Sane-et-Loire) and Buxires (Allier).
Amber is not homogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance.
Impurities render the mineral grey, greenish or reddish, bituminous matter being often present in the massive varieties.
The Cambrian is represented by blue clays, ungulite sandstones and bituminous slates in Esthonia and St Petersburg.
This maximum rate depends upon the kind of coal used, whether small, friable, bituminous or hard, upon the thickness of the fire, and upon the correct design and setting of the blast-pipe.
The dark bituminous layers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the quartzites, have led, here as elsewhere, to the hope of coming upon a seam of coal, but it is contrary to experience that coal of any value should be found in rocks of that age.
A sub-bituminous lignite is mined in Esmeralda county (800 tons in 1906; 330 tons in 1907).
The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.
The mineral is usually found in a state of considerable chemical purity, though small amounts of strontium and calcium sulphates may isomorphously replace the barium sulphate: ammonium sulphate is also sometimes present, whilst clay, silica, bituminous matter, &c., may be enclosed as impurities.
The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.
Of these early writers, Hatchett is the most explicit, the various bituminous substances being by him classified and defined.
Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.
Springfield is a trading and shipping centre for a prosperous agricultural region, and ships large quantities of bituminous coal from the immediate vicinity.
The usual coal deposits of Alberta are of bituminous or semi-bituminous coal.
At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar position.
Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.
Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal.
Bituminous products, though, as already stated, widely distributed, are not as yet much developed.
The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.
From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.
Bituminous coal of an inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul, and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina.
Above sea-level, in a wheat-growing region, in which bituminous coal, limestone, and brick and potter's clay abound.
Bituminous coal and natural gas are found in the vicinity, and the borough ships coal and lumber, and has various important manufactures.
Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.
Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found.
Charleston is in the midst of a region rich in bituminous coal, the shipment of which by river and rail constitutes one of its principal industries.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.
The specific gravity is highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.).
The most important class of coals is that generally known as bituminous, from their property of softening or undergoing an apparent fusion when heated to a temperature far below that at which actual combustion takes place.
That nothing analogous to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the ordinary solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisulphide of carbon and benzol, have no effect upon them, as would be the case if they contained bitumen soluble in these re-agents.
The proportion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90% the amount being highest as they approach the character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest to lignites.
In Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and along the line of the Rocky Mountains, extensive fields occur, producing lignite and bituminous coal.
The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.
The value of the bituminous coal output was $465,900 (184,440 short tons) in 1890; $1,581,914 (968,373 short tons) in 1900; $ 2, 77 8, 811 (1,648,069 short tons) in 1907; and $3,419,481 (1,805,377 short tons) in 1908.
The principal mineral of Iowa, however, is bituminous coal; it ranked in 1908 eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union, its product being valued at $11,706,402.
Bituminous coal is extensively mined in the vicinity.
The coal underlying the east half of the state, the " Great Plains," is lignitic and of inferior quality, but that in the mountain districts is bituminous and generally suitable for coking.
They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.
The coal of some of the beds is bituminous, and of others anthracite.
Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.
The coal is of two varieties: bituminous and semi-bituminous.
Coal, chiefly bituminous, occurs in large quantities in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and in various parts of the north-west (lignite), though most of the anthracite is imported from the United States, as is the greater part of the bituminous coal used in Ontario.
The production of bituminous coal has also increased very rapidly.
Thus the bituminous and fatty matters found about the mummies and their wrappings were employed as a sovereign remedy, particularly for wounds and contusions, and a brisk trade began in these "exudations" of mummies.