There are veins of bismuth near Sodaville.
As another instance of this kind, the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water may be cited.
Manganese ore is mined for export, and bismuth is reported to have been discovered.
The large Hall effect in bismuth was discovered by Righi, Journ.
Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz.
Rend., 1904 seq.) by fractional crystallization of the nickel double nitrates, the ethyl sulphates, and the bismuth double nitrates of the terbium earths.
He passed the oscillations to be detected through a fine wire or strip of gold leaf, and over this, but just not touching, suspended a loop of bismuth-antimony wire by a quartz fibre.
The other pair of platinum wires are connected by a tellurium-bismuth thermo-couple, the junction of which just makes contact with the centre of the fine wire.
Tin, bismuth) to give the alloy certain properties.
Most metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types Mhco 3 and M 2 CO 3 (M = one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth, copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates.
The crystals belong to the following systems: regular system - silver, gold, palladium, mercury, copper, iron, lead; quadratic system - tin, potassium; rhombic system - antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc, magnesium.
Antimony, bismuth and zinc exhibit a very distinct crystalline structure: a bar-shaped ingot readily breaks, and the crystal faces are distinctly visible on the fracture.
Volatilized more or less readily when heated beyond their fusing points in open crucibles: antimony (very readily), lead, bismuth, tin, silver.
By the joint action of water and air, thallium, lead, bismuth are oxidized, with formation of more or less sparingly soluble hydroxides (ThHO, PbH 2 O 2, BiH303), which, in the presence of carbonic acid, pass into still less soluble basic carbonates.
Bismuth is similarly attacked, but slowly, at a white heat.
Bismuth and antimony give (the latter very readily) sesquioxide (Bi 2 O 3 and Sb203, the latter being capable of passing into Sb204).
Of the several individual chlorides, the following are liquids or solids, volatile enough to be distilled from glass vessels: AsC13, SbC1 3, SnCl 4, BiCl 3, HgC1 2, the chlorides of arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, mercury respectively.
Moreover, zinc and bismuth were confused, and the word spiauter (the modern spelter) was indiscriminately given to both these metals.
Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.
Spring has shown that by compressing a finely divided mixture of i 5 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin and 3 parts of cadmium, an alloy is pro duced which melts at ioo C., that is, much below the meltingpoint of any of the four metals.
Various compounds of the alkali metals with bismuth, antimony, tin and lead have been prepared in a pure state.
The ternary alloys containing bismuth, tin and lead have been studied in this way by F.
Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.
He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.
Antimonial, bismuth and arsenical compounds were assiduously studied, a direct consequence of their high medicinal importance; mercurial and silver compounds were investigated for the same reason.
If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.
The black films of antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder.
The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.
The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.
The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
To the filtrate add ammonia in excess: a white precipitate indicates bismuth; if the solution be blue, copper is present.
Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.
In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony may be deposited.
It holds its own, however, when base bullion contains bismuth in appreciable amounts, as in the Pattinson process bismuth follows the lead to be cupelled, while in the Parkes process it remains with the desilverized lead which goes to market, and lead of commerce should contain little bismuth.
The base bullion is imperfectly Pattinsonized, giving lead rich in silver and bismuth, which is cupelled, and lead low in silver, and especially so in bismuth, which is further desilverized by the Parkes process.
Bismuth and Tin.
An alloy of 5 of lead, 8 of bismuth and 3 of tin fuses at 94.4° C., i.e.
An alloy of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium (Wood's alloy) melts below 70° C.
Bismuth, the strongest of the diamagnetics, has a negative susceptibility which is numerically 20 times less than that of liquid oxygen.
The fact, which will be referred to later, that the electrical resistance of bismuth is very greatly affected by a magnetic field has been applied in the construction of apparatus for measuring field intensity.
A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.
Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
Trans., 1883, Part I., 153) discovered in 1881 that the resistance of a bismuth rod was slightly increased when the rod was subjected to longitudinal magnetic force, and a year or two later A.
Soc., 1897, 60, 425) worked with a similar specimen of bismuth, and their results for a constant temperature of 19° agree well with those of Henderson.
The following table gives some of their results, the specific resistance of the bismuth being expressed in C.G.S.
At the temperature of liquid air (-185°) the application of a field of 21,800 multiplied the resistance of the bismuth no less than 150 times.
Ber., 1886, 94, 560) have found that the rotational coefficient of tellurium is more than fifty times greater than that of bismuth, its sign being positive.
As to what effect, if any, is produced upon the thermo-electric quality of bismuth by a magnetic field there is still some doubt.
Van Aubel I believes that in pure bismuth the thermo-electric force is increased by the field; impurities may neutralize this effect, and in sufficient quantities reverse it.
Hence may be deduced an explanation of the fact that, while the susceptibility of all known diamagnetics (except bismuth and antimony) is independent of the temperature, that of paramagnetics varies inversely as the absolute temperature, in accordance with the law of Curie.
Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.
Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.
Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.