The great mortality, especially among the children, is one of the causes of this, the birthrate being also lower than in Russia.
The following table shows the average birthrate and death-rate per thousand at stated periods.
The data gathered by the Federal census have never made possible a satisfactory and trustworthy calculation of the birthrate, and state and local agencies possess no such data Birth-rate for any considerable area.
A birthrate continuously in excess of the death-rate tends to lower the latter through the supply it affords of people annually reaching the more healthy ages.
It may be inferred from the above that a high birthrate does not imply a high rate of increase of population, any more than does a decreasing mortality, but the two rates must be considered in their relations to each other.
Farr, Vital Statistics (1885); Coghlan, Report on Decline in Birthrate, New South Wales (1903), and report of Royal Commission on that decline (1904); Bonar, Malthus and his Work (1885); Bertillon, Elements de demographie; Gamier, Du Principe de population; de Molinari, Ralentissement du mouvement de la population; Bertheau, Essai sur les lois de la population; Starkenburg, Die BevolkerungsWissenschaft; Stieda, Das sexual Verhdltniss der Geborenen; Rubin and Westergaard, Statistik der Ehen; Westergaard, Die Lehre von der Mortalitdt and Morbilitdt, and Die Grundaage der Theorie der Statistik; Gonnard, L'Emigration europeenne.