But in spite of the fiasco of the Irish Councils Bill (1907), the struggles over education (Mr Birrell's bill of 1906 being dropped on account of the Lords' amendments), the rejection by the peers of the Plural Voting Abolition Bill (1906), and the failure (again due to the Lords) of the Scottish Small Holdings Bill and Valuation Bill (1907), which at the time made his premiership appear to be a period of bitter and unproductive debate, a good many reforming measures of some moment were carried.
The failure of the government in Ireland (where the only success was Mr Birrell's introduction of the Universities Bill in April 1908), their internal divisions as regards socialistic legislation, their variance from the views of the selfgoverning colonies on Imperial administration, the admission after the general election that the alleged "slavery" of the Chinese in the Transvaal was, in Mr Winston Churchill's phrase, a "terminological inexactitude," and the introduction of extreme measures such as the Licensing Bill of 1908, offered excellent opportunities of electioneering attack.
Till 1575 (Bannatyne Club, 1833); Robert Birrell's "Diary" in Sir J.
Critical estimates are also to be found in Matthew Arnold's Discourses in America, John Morley's Critical Miscellanies, Henry James's Partial Portraits, Lowell's My Study Windows, Birrell's Obiter Dicta (2nd series), Stedman's Poets of America, Whipple's American Literature, &c. There is a Bibliography of Ralph Waldo Emerson, by G.
The rejection of Mr Birrell's bill in 1906 by the House of Lords was accordingly accompanied by denunciations of that body from Dr Clifford and his followers; but as year by year went by, up to 1909, with nothing but failure on the part of the Liberal ministry to arrive at any solution of the education problem, - failure due now not to the House of Lords but to the inherent difficulties of the subject (see Education),-it became increasingly clear to the public generally that the easy denunciations of the act of 1902, which had played so large a part in the elections of 1906, were not so simple to carry into practice, and that a compromise in which the denominationalists would have their say would have to be the result.