Witches-brooms are the tufted bunches of twigs found on silver firs, birches and other trees, and often present resemblances to birds nests or clumps of mistletoe if only seen from a distance.
There were oaks, beeches (scarcely distinguishable from existing species), birches, planes and willows (one closely related to the living Salix candida), laurels, represented by Sassafras and Cinnamomum, magnolias and tulip trees (Liriodendron), myrtles, Liquidambar, Diospyros and ivy.
To take, for example, one of the most characteristic features of the Palaearctic region, its catkin-bearing glpridiini,c frpec ~,, North Amnt4ra ~ fnA nrnrgar~, the came a-pliers as in the Old Worldoaks, chestnuts, beeches, hazels, hornbeams, birches, alders, willows and poplars.
In the Mountain Region at the bases of the mountains are oaks, hickories, chestnuts and white poplars: above these are hemlocks, beeches, birches, elms, ashes, maples and limes; and still higher up are spruce, white pine and balsam; and all but a comparatively few of the higher mountains are forest-clad to their summits.
In the north, where the lichen-covered or ice-shaven rocks do not protrude, the ground is covered with a carpet of mosses, creeping dwarf willows, crow berries and similar plants, while the flowers most common are the andromeda, the yellow poppy, pedicularis, pyrola, &c. besides the flowering mosses; but in South Greenland there is something in the shape of bush, the dwarf birches even rising a few feet in very sheltered places, the willows may grow higher than a man, and the vegetation is less arctic and more abundant.
In the deeper valleys and on the lowlands of West Siberia the larches, pines and silver firs, intermingled with birches and aspens, attain a great size, and the streams are fringed with thickets of poplar and willow.
About 857,000 acres, or 85% of the whole forest land, are planted with conifers; and about 143,000 acres, or 15%, with deciduous trees, among which beeches and birches are the commonest.
Lat., beyond which birches occur only in special situations or as isolated trees.
On the higher elevations the trees are mostly white pine, yellow pine and hemlock, but in the valleys and lower levels are oaks, hickories, maples, elms, birches, locusts, willows, spruces, gums, buckeyes, the chestnut, black walnut, butternut, cedar, ash, linden, poplar, buttonwood, hornbeam, holly, catalpa, magnolia, tulip-tree, Kentucky coffee-tree, sassafras, wild cherry, pawpaw, crab-apple and other species.
Pocket-plums and witches' brooms on birches, &c., are due to their action (fig.
The Scotch fir; birches are also Lippe abundant.
BjdrkS ("the isle of birches"), by foreign authors called Birka, was a kind of capital where the king lived occasionally at least; history speaks of its relations with Dorestad in the Netherlands, and the extensive refuse heaps of the old city, as well as the numerous sepulchral monuments, show that the population must have been large.
I was in haste to buy it, before the proprietor finished getting out some rocks, cutting down the hollow apple trees, and grubbing up some young birches which had sprung up in the pasture, or, in short, had made any more of his improvements.
This rise and fall of Walden at long intervals serves this use at least; the water standing at this great height for a year or more, though it makes it difficult to walk round it, kills the shrubs and trees which have sprung up about its edge since the last rise--pitch pines, birches, alders, aspens, and others--and, falling again, leaves an unobstructed shore; for, unlike many ponds and all waters which are subject to a daily tide, its shore is cleanest when the water is lowest.
Warmed by the spring sunshine he sat in the caleche looking at the new grass, the first leaves on the birches, and the first puffs of white spring clouds floating across the clear blue sky.
The birches with their sticky green leaves were motionless, and lilac-colored flowers and the first blades of green grass were pushing up and lifting last year's leaves.
The coarse evergreen color of the small fir trees scattered here and there among the birches was an unpleasant reminder of winter.
The birches and cherry and alders too are coming out....
Probably ten times the age of the birches that formed the forest, it was ten times as thick and twice as tall as they.
That curly grass which always grows by country roadsides became clearly visible, still wet with the night's rain; the drooping branches of the birches, also wet, swayed in the wind and flung down bright drops of water to one side.
Through a gap in the broken wall he could see, beside the wooden fence, a row of thirty year-old birches with their lower branches lopped off, a field on which shocks of oats were standing, and some bushes near which rose the smoke of campfires-- the soldiers' kitchens.
He looked at the row of birches shining in the sunshine, with their motionless green and yellow foliage and white bark.
And the birches with their light and shade, the curly clouds, the smoke of the campfires, and all that was around him changed and seemed terrible and menacing.