The Barre granites, like those of Woodbury and Calais (also in Washington county) and part of those of South Ryegate, Kirby and Newark (Caledonia county), are of the biotite type; they are grey, except the stone from Newark, which is pinkish.
In the mica-schists of this group biotite or muscovite may be the principal mineral and often both are present in varying proportions; the mica has developed from the argillaceous matter of the original rock; in addition there is always quartz and sometimes felspar (albite or oligoclase).
Calc-schists are usually argillaceous limestones in which a large development of biotite or phlogopite has occasioned foliation.
Some of the "porphyroids" which have grains of quartz and felspar in a finely schistose micaceous matrix are intermediate between porphyries and micaschists of this group. Still more numerous are orthoschists of hornblendic character (hornblende-schists) consisting of green hornblende with often felspar, quartz and sphene (also rutile, garnet, epidote or zoisite, biotite and iron oxides).
Under extreme crushing these basic rocks may be converted into dark biotite-schists, or greenish chloriteschists.
The granite (biotite, biotite-muscovite and quartz-monzonite) is of fine quality, and has been used extensively in the United States for building and monumental purposes; and the burning of lime is by far the most important industry of the city.
Few obsidians are entirely vitreous; usually they have small crystals of felspar, quartz, biotite or iron oxides, and when these are numerous the rock is called a porphyritic obsidian (or hyalo-liparite).
The principal members of the group are muscovite, biotite, phlogopite and lepidolite.
The angle between the optic axes varies from 70 0 -50° in muscovite and lepidolite to Io - o° in biotite and phlogopite; the latter are thus frequently practically uniaxial.
To the first class, with the optic axial plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry, belong muscovite, lepidolite, paragonite, and a rare variety of biotite called anomite; the second class includes zinnwaldite, phlogopite, lepidomelane and most biotites.
Muscovite and biotite are commonly found in siliceous rocks, whilst phlogopite is characteristic of calcareous rocks.
The best crystallized specimens of any mica are afforded by the small brilliant crystals of biotite, which encrust cavities in the limestone blocks ejected from Monte Somma, Vesuvius.
The Becker granite (known as " Chester dark " and " Chester light ") is a muscovite-biotite granite varying from medium grey to medium bluish grey colour, and fine in texture.
Other minerals which occur in the rocks of this group are calcite, garnet, biotite, chloritoid, epidote, tourmaline and graphite or dark carbonaceous materials.
The Conway quarries, four in number in 1908, are on either side of the Saco river, south-east and south-west of North Conway; their output is coarse constructional stones, all biotite or biotite-hornblende, but varying in colour, pinkish (" red ") and dark-yellow greenish-grey (" green ") varieties being found remarkably near each other at Redstone, on the east side of the Saco valley.
Of Sunapee are quarried two kinds of monumental stone: the " light Sunapee," a light bluish-grey biotite-muscovite, finer than the Concord granite, and capable of a good polish and of fine carving; and the " black pearl " or " dark Sunapee," a dark bluish-grey quartz-diorite, which seems black mottled with white when polished, and which is coarser than the " light Sunapee."
There has been much contirversy concerning the nature and origin of the blue ground itself; and even granted that (as is generally believed) the blue ground is a much serpentinized volcanic breccia consisting originally of an olivine-bronzite-biotite rock (the so-called kimberlite), it contains so many rounded and angular fragments of various rocks and minerals that it is difficult to say which of them may have belonged to the original rock, and whether any were formed in situ, or were brought upfrom below as inclusions.
Biotite and olivine are not really frequent in these rocks, and usually have been affected by resorption.
The township is the centre of the granite industry of the state; the quarries are near the villages of Westerly and Niantic. The granite is of three kinds: white statuary granite, a quartz monzonite, with a fine even-grained texture, used extensively for monuments; blue granite, also a quartz monzonite and also much used for monuments; and red granite, a biotite granite, reddish grey in colour and rather coarse in texture, used for buildings.'
Milford granite is the typical stone of an area reaching into Rhode Island south of the southern boundary of Providence county; it is a biotite granite of post-Cambrian age, is generally pinkish-gray in colour (owing to the large proportion of feldspar among its constituents), and is widely used for building purposes.
The gneiss is mostly grey, but occasionally pinkish, its essential constituents (felspar and quartz) being almost always associated with dark mica (biotite) and hornblende in variable quantity.
Chlorite arises from biotite, augite and hornblende.