The accurate investigation of the lowest forms of animal life, commenced by Leeuwenhoek and Swammerdam, and continued by the remarkable labours of Reaumur, Abraham Trembley, Bonnet, and a host of other observers in the latter part of the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries, drew the attention of biologists to the gradation in the complexity of organization which is presented by living beings, and culminated in the doctrine of the echelle des titres, so powerfully and clearly stated by Bonnet, and, before him, adumbrated by Locke and by Leibnitz.
Inasmuch as Lamarck attempted to frame a theory of evolution in which the principle of natural selection had no part, the interpretation placed on their work by many bionomical investigators recalls the theories of Lamarck, and the name Neo-Lamarckism has been used of such a school of biologists, particularly active in America.
It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.
It is maintained by Brandt and others belonging to the Kiel school of marine biologists that the process of denitrification is, on the whole, more significant in the sea than that of nitrogen-fixation.
Mendel's observations constitute an ingenious attempt to throw light on the matter, and in the opinion of some biologists have led to the discovery of an important principle.
Another stimulus came from the biologists, Pacific. On the 1st of November 1876 a cyclone acting in this who began to realize the importance of a more detailed investigaway submerged a great area of the level plain of the Ganges tion of the life conditions of organisms at great depths in the delta to a depth of 46 ft.; here the influence of the difference sea.
The lead in this direction was taken by British biologists, of pressure within and without the cyclone acted in the same beginning with Edward Forbes in 1839, and in 1868 a party on direction as the wind.
In recent years the science of vegetable palaeontology has been given the distinct name of Palaeobotany, so that " palaeontology e' among biologists mainly refers to zoology; but historically the two cannot be disconnected.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about biologists and paleontologists.
But investigations carried out in connexion with the "Challenger" expedition indicated that it was an artificial product, composed of a flocculent precipitate of gypsum thrown down from seawater by alcohol, and the hypothesis of its organic character was abandoned by most biologists, Huxley included.
Weismann, all the leading biologists had either subscribed to the telegony doctrine or admitted that "infection of the germ" was well within the bounds of possibilities.
Code breakers and linguists were consulted, chemists and biologists patched up their differences and worked together, and scientific groups were formed to share information and theories.