1045-1052) Nasir visited Mecca four times, and performed all the rites and observances of a zealous pilgrim; but he was far more attracted by Cairo, the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Fatimite sultan Mostansir billah, the great champion of the Shia, and the spiritual as well as political head of the house of `Ali, which was just then waging a deadly war against the 'Abbaside caliph of Bagdad, and the great defender of the Sunnite creed, Toghrul Beg the Seljuk.
In the reign cf the second Egyptian Fa~imite Aziz billah, J auhar, who appears to have been cashiered by Moizz, was again employed at the instance of Jacob b.
Mahommed received the surname of al-Amin (" the Sure"), Abdallah that of al-Ma`mun (" he in whom men trust"), and Qasim that of al-Mo`tamin billah (" he who trusts in God").
In the year of his elevation to the Caliphate, he had regulated the succession to the empire in his own family by designating as future caliphs his three sons, al-Montasir billah (" he who seeks help in God"), al-Mo`tazz billah (" he whose strength is of God"), and al-Mowayyad billah (" he who is assisted by God").
Wasif, proclaimed as caliph one of the sons of Wathiq with the title of al-Mohtadi billah ("the guided by God"), who, however, refused to occupy the throne until his predecessor had solemnly abdicated.
289 (March 902), leaving the Caliphate to his son al-Moktafi billah (" he who sufficeth himself' in God").
The new caliph, al-Moqtadir billah (" the powerful through God"), a brother of Moktafi, was only thirteen years of age when he ascended the throne.
Very soon he withdrew, and though he could not prevent the plundering of the palace, and the proclamation as caliph of another son of Motadid with the title al-Qahir billah (" the victorious through God"), he rescued Moqtadir and his mother, and at the same time his imprisoned friend Ali b.
- Moqtadir's son, who was then proclaimed caliph under the name of ar-Radi billah (" the content through God"), was pious and well-meaning, but inherited only the shadow of power.
Ottagi billah (" he who guards himself by God").
As successor Tuzun chose al-Mostakfi billah (" he who finds full sufficiency with God"), a son of Moktafi.
His choice fell on a son of Moqtadir, who took the title of al-Moti` billah (" he who obeys God").
A grandson of Moqtadir was then made caliph under the name of al-Qadi y billah (" the powerful through God").
Al-Mostazhir billah (" he who seeks to triumph through God"), son of Moqtadi, was only sixteen years old when he was proclaimed caliph.
Al-Mostarshid billah (" he who asks guidance from God"), who succeeded his father in Rabia II.
Al-Rashid billah (" the just through God") tried to follow the steps of his father, with the aid of Zengi, the prince of Mosul.
Al-Mostanjid billah ("he who invokes help from God"), the son of Moqtafi, enlarged the dominion of the Caliphate by making an end to the state of the Mazyadites in Hillah.
Al-Mostansir billah (" he who asks help from God") was caliph till his death in Jomada II.
Al-Mosta`sim billah ("he who clings to God for protection"), son of Mostansir, the last caliph of Bagdad, was a narrow-minded, irresolute man, guided moreover by bad counsellors.
In vain, three years later, did Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad, a scion of the race of the Abbasids, who had taken refuge in Egypt with Bibars the Mameluke sultan, and who had been proclaimed caliph under the title al-Mostansir billah (" he who seeks help from God"), make an effort to restore a dynasty which was now for ever extinct.