The Egyptian equivalents of six characters have been made out by the aid of bilingual cartouches.
According to the statistical returns there were 139 administrative sub-districts where only Czech was spoken and 95 speaking only German, as opposed to only five bilingual ones.
In the bilingual inscriptions, Tibetan and Chinese, set up at Lhasa in 822, and published by Bushell in 1880, we remark that the silent letters were pronounced: Tib.
His Latin text is probably as ancient as the Greek text of Marcellus, because the Roman Church must always have been bilingual in its early days.
Some important sculpture was found, and a large number of inscriptions, the most valuable being two bilingual texts, in Lydian-Aramaic and Lydian-Greek.
Bilingual requirements gave rise to no great difficulty, the provincial council having passed an ordinance in 1921 providing that the medium of instruction up to standard IV.
In this reign a severe struggle took place with China, peace being concluded in 821 at Ch'ang-ngan and ratified at Lhasa the following year by the erection of bilingual tablets, which still exist.
In general, the later books of the Old Testament show, roughly speaking, a greater simplicity and uniformity of style, as well as a tendency to Aramaisms. For some centuries after the Exile, the people of Palestine must have been bilingual, speaking Aramaic for ordinary purposes, but still at least understanding Hebrew.
Nearly all the aristocracy claim Venetian descent; most of the upper classes are bilingual, speaking both Greek and Italian; and a considerable section of the population are Roman Catholics of the Latin rite.
Among the later tombs bilingual inscriptions are by no means rare, and both Etruscan and Latin inscriptions are often found in the same cemeteries, showing that the use of the Etruscan language only died out gradually.
The monastic library contains some valuable MSS., especially a number of bilingual documents in Greek and Arabic, the earliest being dated 1144.
In the 9th century, as shown by the bilingual Tibeto-Chinese edict at Lhasa, there was relatively little difference between the spoken and the written language.
Egypt had long been bilingual when, in papyri of the 2nd century AD,, we begin to find transcripts of the Egyptian language into Greek letters, the latter reinforced by a few signs borrowed from the demotic alphabet: so written we have a magical text and a horoscope, probably made by foreigners or for their use.
French is, however, exclusively used in the treaties constituting the great " international unions "; and bilingual treaties are sometimes accompanied by a third version in French, to be decisive in case of alleged variances between the other two.
In the bilingual Hittite inscription of Tarqudimme the land is called "the land of the city of Metan," just as in the Hittite documents the Hittite country in Asia Minor is called "the land of the city of Khatti."